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Federal Aviation Regulations for Pilots, Flight crew and Instructors Federal Aviation Regulations
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This publication contains current regulations as of August 10, 2019.
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ISBN 978-1-936506-09-5 US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
Title 14 – Aeronautics and Space Part 1 Definitions and abbreviations Part 43 Maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations Part 48 Registration and Marking Requirements for Small Unmanned Aircraft Part 61 Certification: Pilots and instructors Part 67 Medical Standards and Certification Part 71 Airspace and Airways Part 73 Special Use Airspace Part 91 General Operating and Flight Rules Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures Part 103 Ultralight Vehicles Part 105 Parachute Operations Part 107 Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Part 110 General Requirements Part 117 Flight and Duty Limitations and Rest Requirements Part 119 Certification of Air Carriers and Commercial Operators Part 135 Operating Requirements: Commuter and On Demand Operations Part 136 Commercial Air Tours and National Parks Air Tour Management Part 137 Agricultural Aircraft Operations Part 141 Pilot schools Part 142 Training centers 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations August 9, 2019 Title 14 - Aeronautics
and Space--Volume 1
CHAPTER I - FEDERAL
SUBCHAPTER A - DEFINITIONS
AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
PART 1 - DEFINITIONS
49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701. § 1.1 General definitions.
As used in Subchapters A through K of this chapter, unless
the context requires otherwise:
Administrator means the Federal Aviation Administrator
or any person to whom he has delegated his authority in the
Aerodynamic coefficients means non-dimensional
coefficients for aerodynamic forces and moments.
Air carrier means a person who undertakes directly by
lease, or other arrangement, to engage in air transportation.
Air commerce means interstate, overseas, or foreign air
commerce or the transportation of mail by aircraft or any
operation or navigation of aircraft within the limits of any
Federal airway or any operation or navigation of aircraft which
directly affects, or which may endanger safety in, interstate,
overseas, or foreign air commerce.
Aircraft means a device that is used or intended to be used
for flight in the air.
Aircraft engine means an engine that is used or intended to
be used for propelling aircraft. It includes turbosuperchargers,
appurtenances, and accessories necessary for its functioning,
but does not include propellers.
Airframe means the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings,
fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but excluding
propellers and rotating airfoils of engines), and landing gear of
an aircraft and their accessories and controls. § 1.1 Airplane means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft
heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic
reaction of the air against its wings.
Airport means an area of land or water that is used or
intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, and
includes its buildings and facilities, if any.
Airship means an engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft
that can be steered.
Air traffic means aircraft operating in the air or on an
airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas.
Air traffic clearance means an authorization by air traffic
control, for the purpose of preventing collision between known
aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic
conditions within controlled airspace.
Air traffic control means a service operated by appropriate
authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of
Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is a specified route
designated for channeling the flow of traffic as necessary
for the provision of air traffic services. The term “ATS
route” refers to a variety of airways, including jet routes, area
navigation (RNAV) routes, and arrival and departure routes.
An ATS route is defined by route specifications, which may
(1) An ATS route designator;
(2) The path to or from significant points;
(3) Distance between significant points;
(4) Reporting requirements; and
(5) The lowest safe altitude determined by the appropriate
Air transportation means interstate, overseas, or foreign air
transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft.
Alert Area. An alert area is established to inform pilots of
a specific area wherein a high volume of pilot training or an
unusual type of aeronautical activity is conducted.
Alternate airport means an airport at which an aircraft may
land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable.
Altitude engine means a reciprocating aircraft engine
having a rated takeoff power that is producible from sea level
to an established higher altitude.
Amateur rocket means an unmanned rocket that:
(1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a combined
total impulse of 889,600 Newton-seconds (200,000 poundseconds) or less; and
(2) Cannot reach an altitude greater than 150 kilometers
(93.2 statute miles) above the earth's surface.
Appliance means any instrument, mechanism, equipment,
part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including
communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used
in operating or controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or
attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an airframe, engine,
Approved, unless used with reference to another person,
means approved by the FAA or any person to whom the
FAA has delegated its authority in the matter concerned, Last Modified 11-August-2019. Copyright MyPilotStore. Do not distribute. 1 § 1.1 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations or approved under the provisions of a bilateral agreement
between the United States and a foreign country or jurisdiction.
Area navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation that
permits aircraft operations on any desired flight path.
Area navigation (RNAV) route is an ATS route based on
RNAV that can be used by suitably equipped aircraft.
Armed Forces means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine
Corps, and Coast Guard, including their regular and reserve
components and members serving without component status.
Autorotation means a rotorcraft flight condition in which
the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the
rotorcraft is in motion.
Auxiliary rotor means a rotor that serves either to
counteract the effect of the main rotor torque on a rotorcraft
or to maneuver the rotorcraft about one or more of its three
Balloon means a lighter-than-air aircraft that is not engine
driven, and that sustains flight through the use of either gas
buoyancy or an airborne heater.
Brake horsepower means the power delivered at the
propeller shaft (main drive or main output) of an aircraft
Calibrated airspeed means the indicated airspeed of an
aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated
airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea
Canard means the forward wing of a canard configuration
and may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface,
with or without control surfaces.
Canard configuration means a configuration in which the
span of the forward wing is substantially less than that of the
(1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings,
privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a broad
classification of aircraft. Examples include: airplane;
rotorcraft; glider; and lighter-than-air; and
(2) As used with respect to the certification of aircraft,
means a grouping of aircraft based upon intended use or
operating limitations. Examples include: transport, normal,
utility, acrobatic, limited, restricted, and provisional.
Category A, with respect to transport category rotorcraft,
means multiengine rotorcraft designed with engine and system
isolation features specified in Part 29 and utilizing scheduled
takeoff and landing operations under a critical engine failure
concept which assures adequate designated surface area and
adequate performance capability for continued safe flight in
the event of engine failure.
Category B, with respect to transport category rotorcraft,
means single-engine or multiengine rotorcraft which do not
fully meet all Category A standards. Category B rotorcraft
have no guaranteed stay-up ability in the event of engine
failure and unscheduled landing is assumed.
Category II operations, with respect to the operation of
aircraft, means a straight-in ILS approach to the runway of an 2 airport under a Category II ILS instrument approach procedure
issued by the Administrator or other appropriate authority.
Category III operations, with respect to the operation of
aircraft, means an ILS approach to, and landing on, the runway
of an airport using a Category III ILS instrument approach
procedure issued by the Administrator or other appropriate
Ceiling means the height above the earth's surface of the
lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported
as “broken”, “overcast”, or “obscuration”, and not classified
as “thin” or “partial”.
Civil aircraft means aircraft other than public aircraft.
(1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings,
privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a classification
of aircraft within a category having similar operating
characteristics. Examples include: single engine; multiengine;
land; water; gyroplane; helicopter; airship; and free balloon;
(2) As used with respect to the certification of
aircraft, means a broad grouping of aircraft having similar
characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples
include: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane; and
(1) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after
August 29, 1959, an area beyond the runway, not less than 500
feet wide, centrally located about the extended centerline of
the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities.
The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway plane,
extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not
exceeding 1.25 percent, above which no object nor any terrain
protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude above the
plane if their height above the end of the runway is 26 inches
or less and if they are located to each side of the runway.
(2) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after
September 30, 1958, but before August 30, 1959, an area
beyond the takeoff runway extending no less than 300 feet
on either side of the extended centerline of the runway, at an
elevation no higher than the elevation of the end of the runway,
clear of all fixed obstacles, and under the control of the airport
Climbout speed, with respect to rotorcraft, means a
referenced airspeed which results in a flight path clear of the
height-velocity envelope during initial climbout.
Commercial operator means a person who, for
compensation or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air
commerce of persons or property, other than as an air carrier or
foreign air carrier or under the authority of Part 375 of this title.
Where it is doubtful that an operation is for “compensation or
hire”, the test applied is whether the carriage by air is merely
incidental to the person's other business or is, in itself, a major
enterprise for profit.
Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures (CMP)
document means a document approved by the FAA that Last Modified 11-August-2019. Copyright MyPilotStore. Do not distribute. 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations contains minimum configuration, operating, and maintenance
requirements, hardware life-limits, and Master Minimum
Equipment List (MMEL) constraints necessary for an
airplane-engine combination to meet ETOPS type design
Consensus standard means, for the purpose of
certificating light-sport aircraft, an industry-developed
consensus standard that applies to aircraft design,
production, and airworthiness. It includes, but is not
limited to, standards for aircraft design and performance,
required equipment, manufacturer quality assurance systems,
production acceptance test procedures, operating instructions,
maintenance and inspection procedures, identification and
recording of major repairs and major alterations, and continued
Controlled airspace means an airspace of defined
dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided
to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the
Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers Class A,
Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace. Controlled Firing Area. A controlled firing area is
established to contain activities, which if not conducted
in a controlled environment, would be hazardous to
Crewmember means a person assigned to perform duty in
an aircraft during flight time.
Critical altitude means the maximum altitude at which, in
standard atmosphere, it is possible to maintain, at a specified
rotational speed, a specified power or a specified manifold
pressure. Unless otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the
maximum altitude at which it is possible to maintain, at the
maximum continuous rotational speed, one of the following:
(1) The maximum continuous power, in the case of engines
for which this power rating is the same at sea level and at the
(2) The maximum continuous rated manifold pressure, in
the case of engines, the maximum continuous power of which
is governed by a constant manifold pressure.
Critical engine means the engine whose failure would most
adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of an
Decision altitude (DA) is a specified altitude in an
instrument approach procedure at which the pilot must decide
whether to initiate an immediate missed approach if the pilot
does not see the required visual reference, or to continue the
approach. Decision altitude is expressed in feet above mean
Decision height (DH) is a specified height above the
ground in an instrument approach procedure at which the pilot
must decide whether to initiate an immediate missed approach
if the pilot does not see the required visual reference, or to § 1.1 continue the approach. Decision height is expressed in feet
above ground level.
Early ETOPS means ETOPS type design approval
obtained without gaining non-ETOPS service experience
on the candidate airplane-engine combination certified for
EFVS operation means an operation in which visibility
conditions require an EFVS to be used in lieu of natural vision
to perform an approach or landing, determine enhanced flight
visibility, identify required visual references, or conduct a
Enhanced flight visibility (EFV) means the average
forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft
in flight, at which prominent topographical objects may be
clearly distinguished and identified by day or night by a pilot
using an enhanced flight vision system.
Enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) means an installed
aircraft system which uses an electronic means to provide a
display of the forward external scene topography (the natural
or manmade features of a place or region especially in a way to
show their relative positions and elevation) through the use of
imaging sensors, including but not limited to forward-looking
infrared, millimeter wave radiometry, millimeter wave radar,
or low-light level image intensification. An EFVS includes
the display element, sensors, computers and power supplies,
indications, and controls.
Equivalent airspeed means the calibrated airspeed of an
aircraft corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the
particular altitude. Equivalent airspeed is equal to calibrated
airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.
ETOPS Significant System means an airplane system,
including the propulsion system, the failure or malfunctioning
of which could adversely affect the safety of an ETOPS flight,
or the continued safe flight and landing of an airplane during
an ETOPS diversion. Each ETOPS significant system is either
an ETOPS group 1 significant system or an ETOPS group 2
(1) An ETOPS group 1 Significant System (i) Has fail-safe characteristics directly linked to the degree
of redundancy provided by the number of engines on the
(ii) Is a system, the failure or malfunction of which could
result in an IFSD, loss of thrust control, or other power loss.
(iii) Contributes significantly to the safety of an ETOPS
diversion by providing additional redundancy for any system
power source lost as a result of an inoperative engine.
(iv) Is essential for prolonged operation of an airplane at
engine inoperative altitudes.
(2) An ETOPS group 2 significant system is an ETOPS
significant system that is not an ETOPS group 1 significant
Extended Operations (ETOPS) means an airplane flight
operation, other than an all-cargo operation in an airplane
with more than two engines, during which a portion of the
flight is conducted beyond a time threshold identified in part Last Modified 11-August-2019. Copyright MyPilotStore. Do not distribute. 3 § 1.1 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations 121 or part 135 of this chapter that is determined using an
approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed under standard
atmospheric conditions in still air.
Extended over-water operation means (1) With respect to aircraft other than helicopters, an
operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50
nautical miles from the nearest shoreline; and
(2) With respect to helicopters, an operation over water at
a horizontal distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the
nearest shoreline and more than 50 nautical miles from an offshore heliport structure.
External load means a load that is carried, or extends,
outside of the aircraft fuselage.
External-load attaching means means the structural
components used to attach an external load to an aircraft,
including external-load containers, the backup structure at
the attachment points, and any quick-release device used to
jettison the external load.
Final approach fix (FAF) defines the beginning of the final
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