FAR:AIM 2020.pdf - eFAR 2020 Federal Aviation Regulations for Pilots Flight crew and Instructors Federal Aviation Regulations 2020 Edition Compiled and

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Unformatted text preview: eFAR 2020 Federal Aviation Regulations for Pilots, Flight crew and Instructors Federal Aviation Regulations 2020 Edition Compiled and Published by: MyPilotStore.com 15887 N 76th St Scottsdale, AZ 85260 +1-480-556-0500 This publication contains current regulations as of August 10, 2019. Visit your My Account area at for updates to this document. None of the material in this publication supersedes any documents, procedures, or regulations issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. This document is not an official legal edition of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Visit for more information. The information provided within this eBook is for general informational purposes only. While we try to keep the information up-to-date and accurate, there are no representations or warranties, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the information, products, services, or related graphics contained in this eBook for any purpose. Any use of this information is at your own risk. MyPlane, Inc. does not claim copyright on any material published herein that was taken from United States government sources. Do Not Distribute or Copy This eBook is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition, including this condition, being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. If you received this publication from anyone other than MyPilotStore.com, you’ve received a pirated copy. Please contact us via e-mail at [email protected] and notify us of the situation. To purchase a copy of this eBook, please visit or call 480-556-0500. © 2019 MyPlane, inc. ISBN 978-1-936506-09-5 US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 14 – Aeronautics and Space Part 1 Definitions and abbreviations Part 43 Maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations Part 48 Registration and Marking Requirements for Small Unmanned Aircraft Part 61 Certification: Pilots and instructors Part 67 Medical Standards and Certification Part 71 Airspace and Airways Part 73 Special Use Airspace Part 91 General Operating and Flight Rules Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures Part 103 Ultralight Vehicles Part 105 Parachute Operations Part 107 Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Part 110 General Requirements Part 117 Flight and Duty Limitations and Rest Requirements Part 119 Certification of Air Carriers and Commercial Operators Part 135 Operating Requirements: Commuter and On Demand Operations Part 136 Commercial Air Tours and National Parks Air Tour Management Part 137 Agricultural Aircraft Operations Part 141 Pilot schools Part 142 Training centers 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations August 9, 2019 Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space--Volume 1 CHAPTER I - FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUBCHAPTER A - DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS PART 1 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701. § 1.1 General definitions. As used in Subchapters A through K of this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise: Administrator means the Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he has delegated his authority in the matter concerned. Aerodynamic coefficients means non-dimensional coefficients for aerodynamic forces and moments. Air carrier means a person who undertakes directly by lease, or other arrangement, to engage in air transportation. Air commerce means interstate, overseas, or foreign air commerce or the transportation of mail by aircraft or any operation or navigation of aircraft within the limits of any Federal airway or any operation or navigation of aircraft which directly affects, or which may endanger safety in, interstate, overseas, or foreign air commerce. Aircraft means a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air. Aircraft engine means an engine that is used or intended to be used for propelling aircraft. It includes turbosuperchargers, appurtenances, and accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include propellers. Airframe means the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories and controls. § 1.1 Airplane means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. Airport means an area of land or water that is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, and includes its buildings and facilities, if any. Airship means an engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered. Air traffic means aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. Air traffic clearance means an authorization by air traffic control, for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace. Air traffic control means a service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic. Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is a specified route designated for channeling the flow of traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services. The term “ATS route” refers to a variety of airways, including jet routes, area navigation (RNAV) routes, and arrival and departure routes. An ATS route is defined by route specifications, which may include: (1) An ATS route designator; (2) The path to or from significant points; (3) Distance between significant points; (4) Reporting requirements; and (5) The lowest safe altitude determined by the appropriate authority. Air transportation means interstate, overseas, or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft. Alert Area. An alert area is established to inform pilots of a specific area wherein a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aeronautical activity is conducted. Alternate airport means an airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable. Altitude engine means a reciprocating aircraft engine having a rated takeoff power that is producible from sea level to an established higher altitude. Amateur rocket means an unmanned rocket that: (1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a combined total impulse of 889,600 Newton-seconds (200,000 poundseconds) or less; and (2) Cannot reach an altitude greater than 150 kilometers (93.2 statute miles) above the earth's surface. Appliance means any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an airframe, engine, or propeller. Approved, unless used with reference to another person, means approved by the FAA or any person to whom the FAA has delegated its authority in the matter concerned, Last Modified 11-August-2019. Copyright MyPilotStore. Do not distribute. 1 § 1.1 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations or approved under the provisions of a bilateral agreement between the United States and a foreign country or jurisdiction. Area navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation that permits aircraft operations on any desired flight path. Area navigation (RNAV) route is an ATS route based on RNAV that can be used by suitably equipped aircraft. Armed Forces means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, including their regular and reserve components and members serving without component status. Autorotation means a rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion. Auxiliary rotor means a rotor that serves either to counteract the effect of the main rotor torque on a rotorcraft or to maneuver the rotorcraft about one or more of its three principal axes. Balloon means a lighter-than-air aircraft that is not engine driven, and that sustains flight through the use of either gas buoyancy or an airborne heater. Brake horsepower means the power delivered at the propeller shaft (main drive or main output) of an aircraft engine. Calibrated airspeed means the indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level. Canard means the forward wing of a canard configuration and may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface, with or without control surfaces. Canard configuration means a configuration in which the span of the forward wing is substantially less than that of the main wing. Category: (1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a broad classification of aircraft. Examples include: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; and lighter-than-air; and (2) As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a grouping of aircraft based upon intended use or operating limitations. Examples include: transport, normal, utility, acrobatic, limited, restricted, and provisional. Category A, with respect to transport category rotorcraft, means multiengine rotorcraft designed with engine and system isolation features specified in Part 29 and utilizing scheduled takeoff and landing operations under a critical engine failure concept which assures adequate designated surface area and adequate performance capability for continued safe flight in the event of engine failure. Category B, with respect to transport category rotorcraft, means single-engine or multiengine rotorcraft which do not fully meet all Category A standards. Category B rotorcraft have no guaranteed stay-up ability in the event of engine failure and unscheduled landing is assumed. Category II operations, with respect to the operation of aircraft, means a straight-in ILS approach to the runway of an 2 airport under a Category II ILS instrument approach procedure issued by the Administrator or other appropriate authority. Category III operations, with respect to the operation of aircraft, means an ILS approach to, and landing on, the runway of an airport using a Category III ILS instrument approach procedure issued by the Administrator or other appropriate authority. Ceiling means the height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as “broken”, “overcast”, or “obscuration”, and not classified as “thin” or “partial”. Civil aircraft means aircraft other than public aircraft. Class: (1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics. Examples include: single engine; multiengine; land; water; gyroplane; helicopter; airship; and free balloon; and (2) As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a broad grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples include: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane; and seaplane. Clearway means: (1) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after August 29, 1959, an area beyond the runway, not less than 500 feet wide, centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25 percent, above which no object nor any terrain protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their height above the end of the runway is 26 inches or less and if they are located to each side of the runway. (2) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after September 30, 1958, but before August 30, 1959, an area beyond the takeoff runway extending no less than 300 feet on either side of the extended centerline of the runway, at an elevation no higher than the elevation of the end of the runway, clear of all fixed obstacles, and under the control of the airport authorities. Climbout speed, with respect to rotorcraft, means a referenced airspeed which results in a flight path clear of the height-velocity envelope during initial climbout. Commercial operator means a person who, for compensation or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property, other than as an air carrier or foreign air carrier or under the authority of Part 375 of this title. Where it is doubtful that an operation is for “compensation or hire”, the test applied is whether the carriage by air is merely incidental to the person's other business or is, in itself, a major enterprise for profit. Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures (CMP) document means a document approved by the FAA that Last Modified 11-August-2019. Copyright MyPilotStore. Do not distribute. 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations contains minimum configuration, operating, and maintenance requirements, hardware life-limits, and Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) constraints necessary for an airplane-engine combination to meet ETOPS type design approval requirements. Consensus standard means, for the purpose of certificating light-sport aircraft, an industry-developed consensus standard that applies to aircraft design, production, and airworthiness. It includes, but is not limited to, standards for aircraft design and performance, required equipment, manufacturer quality assurance systems, production acceptance test procedures, operating instructions, maintenance and inspection procedures, identification and recording of major repairs and major alterations, and continued airworthiness. Controlled airspace means an airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace. Controlled Firing Area. A controlled firing area is established to contain activities, which if not conducted in a controlled environment, would be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. Crewmember means a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time. Critical altitude means the maximum altitude at which, in standard atmosphere, it is possible to maintain, at a specified rotational speed, a specified power or a specified manifold pressure. Unless otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which it is possible to maintain, at the maximum continuous rotational speed, one of the following: (1) The maximum continuous power, in the case of engines for which this power rating is the same at sea level and at the rated altitude. (2) The maximum continuous rated manifold pressure, in the case of engines, the maximum continuous power of which is governed by a constant manifold pressure. Critical engine means the engine whose failure would most adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of an aircraft. Decision altitude (DA) is a specified altitude in an instrument approach procedure at which the pilot must decide whether to initiate an immediate missed approach if the pilot does not see the required visual reference, or to continue the approach. Decision altitude is expressed in feet above mean sea level. Decision height (DH) is a specified height above the ground in an instrument approach procedure at which the pilot must decide whether to initiate an immediate missed approach if the pilot does not see the required visual reference, or to § 1.1 continue the approach. Decision height is expressed in feet above ground level. Early ETOPS means ETOPS type design approval obtained without gaining non-ETOPS service experience on the candidate airplane-engine combination certified for ETOPS. EFVS operation means an operation in which visibility conditions require an EFVS to be used in lieu of natural vision to perform an approach or landing, determine enhanced flight visibility, identify required visual references, or conduct a rollout. Enhanced flight visibility (EFV) means the average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent topographical objects may be clearly distinguished and identified by day or night by a pilot using an enhanced flight vision system. Enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) means an installed aircraft system which uses an electronic means to provide a display of the forward external scene topography (the natural or manmade features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevation) through the use of imaging sensors, including but not limited to forward-looking infrared, millimeter wave radiometry, millimeter wave radar, or low-light level image intensification. An EFVS includes the display element, sensors, computers and power supplies, indications, and controls. Equivalent airspeed means the calibrated airspeed of an aircraft corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude. Equivalent airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level. ETOPS Significant System means an airplane system, including the propulsion system, the failure or malfunctioning of which could adversely affect the safety of an ETOPS flight, or the continued safe flight and landing of an airplane during an ETOPS diversion. Each ETOPS significant system is either an ETOPS group 1 significant system or an ETOPS group 2 significant system. (1) An ETOPS group 1 Significant System (i) Has fail-safe characteristics directly linked to the degree of redundancy provided by the number of engines on the airplane. (ii) Is a system, the failure or malfunction of which could result in an IFSD, loss of thrust control, or other power loss. (iii) Contributes significantly to the safety of an ETOPS diversion by providing additional redundancy for any system power source lost as a result of an inoperative engine. (iv) Is essential for prolonged operation of an airplane at engine inoperative altitudes. (2) An ETOPS group 2 significant system is an ETOPS significant system that is not an ETOPS group 1 significant system. Extended Operations (ETOPS) means an airplane flight operation, other than an all-cargo operation in an airplane with more than two engines, during which a portion of the flight is conducted beyond a time threshold identified in part Last Modified 11-August-2019. Copyright MyPilotStore. Do not distribute. 3 § 1.1 2020 MyPilotStore eFAR - Federal Aviation Regulations 121 or part 135 of this chapter that is determined using an approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed under standard atmospheric conditions in still air. Extended over-water operation means (1) With respect to aircraft other than helicopters, an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest shoreline; and (2) With respect to helicopters, an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest shoreline and more than 50 nautical miles from an offshore heliport structure. External load means a load that is carried, or extends, outside of the aircraft fuselage. External-load attaching means means the structural components used to attach an external load to an aircraft, including external-load containers, the backup structure at the attachment points, and any quick-release device used to jettison the external load. Final approach fix (FAF) defines the beginning of the final appr...
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