Nephrosis, Nephritis and Nephrotic Syndrome•Brianna Ramson•APES 9.02
Mortality in the United States•Nephritis and Nephrotic Diseases that result in both acute and chronic kidney disease resulted in 50,633 deaths in the United States (CDC 2017•In the United States, 2.1% of the population have a form of kidney disease•Diabetes and renal failure are the most common causes of death by kidney disease.
Glomerular diseases•The glomerulus helps to eliminate waste as well as maintain homeostasis of a number of electrolytes and hormones.•Mortality in glomerular diseases usually occurs because of altered immunity and vascular disease despite treatment with dialysis.
Glomerular Diseases•The glomerulus performs essential functions of body homeostasis that disease that affect the glomerulus can be devastating. •Minority groups in the United States, particularly African American and Hispanic people, have a higher incidence of propensity to ESRD from diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis.•-disease
End Stage Renal Disease•Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure or end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States, followed by hypertension.•Although there are effective treatments for both diabetes and hypertension, poor control of blood glucose or blood pressure often leads to permanent damage of the kidneys.•The ability of the kidney to effectively filter toxins, salt and other electrolytes, known as the glomerular filtration rate, decreases as kidney damage increases.
Mortality rates in chronic kidney disease•Chronic kidney disease or ESRD decreases life expectancy, often substantially, and is related to the glomerular filtration rate•Men and women aged 40 years had a life expectancy of 30.5 and 34.6 years at eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, •24.5 and 28.7 years at eGFR 45–59 mL/min/1.73 m2, •14.5 and 16.5 years at eGFR 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2 and •10.4 and 9.1 years at eGFR 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. •Life expectancy was longer for women compared with men at all ages and eGFR categories, other than for eGFR 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2 where there was no difference in life expectancy by gender.
Improvements in Diabetic ESRD•During 2000–2014, the overall age-standardized incidence of ESRD among adults with diagnosed diabetes decreased by 33%. •Despite the improvement, there is an increased incidence of new patients being diagnosed with diabetes and/or hypertension. •Continued awareness and interventions to reduce the prevalence of risk factors for kidney failure, improve diabetes care, and reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes might sustain these positive trends.•
Nephritis•Glomerulonephritis is the third leading cause of end stage renal disease.