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TranscriptionFinal2 - BIS2ALecture21 Greg Simonds...

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BIS2A Lecture 21 Greg Simonds
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Topics to cover Review DNA Replication DNA synthesis Replication fork and Origin of Rep. RNA structures Transcription of RNA
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DNA replication A-C-G-T 5’ T-G-C-A 3’ 3’ 5’ A-C-G-T T-G-C-A A-C-G-T T-G-C-A T-G-C-A A-C-G-T Chemistry Enzymes Process (rather complicated)
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Building Blocks: activated nucleotides O CH 2 O O O - H OH BASE O O O - O O O - ~ ~ P P P O - A C G T (N) dNTP dATP dCTP dGTP dTTP dNM dND P dNT P ADP ATP mix 4 dNTPs DNA
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Necessities for DNA synthesis In E. coli: 3 different polymerases In eukaryotes: > 7 different polymerases Requires a template --> order of nucleotide addition old DNA strand:  template new DNA strand:  nascent strand “being born” Requires an enzyme --> To add nucleotides to 3’ end DNA polymerase Requires activated subunits --> nucleotide + energy
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Can add dNTPs only to the 3’ end O CH 2 O O O - H OH O O O - O O O - ~ ~ P P P O - O CH 2 O O O H OH BASE P O - O CH 2 O O O H BASE P O - - O - O - O - trinucleotide dinucleotide + dNTP 5’ end 3’ end G -7.5 2 O O O O - P - inorganic  phosphate  (Pi)
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Requires a primer – it cannot begin chains It is processive It is capable of proofreading C G T A A A G A T G A C A G 3' 5' T T A C 5' OH 5' G OH C OH 5' T OH 5' A OH 5' repeated additions primer = RNA remove incorrect nucleotides T OH G OH repeats DNA Polymerase
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DNA Synthesis DNA Polymerase Needs primer (RNA) to start Finds the right activated subunit Uses template DNA as guide Adds nucleotides and moves forward Uses energy from PPi -> 2 Pi
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What about dsDNA?
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TranscriptionFinal2 - BIS2ALecture21 Greg Simonds...

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