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quiz_3_study_sheet - Quiz 3 Study Sheet Basic organization...

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Quiz 3 Study Sheet Basic organization of the cardiovascular system Cardiovascular System Consists of: 1) Heart: Two pumps a) Right side: pumps blood to lungs b) Left side: pumps blood to rest of body Four chambers: 2 atria and 2 ventricles 2) Blood vessels a) carrying blood from heart: Arteries => divide into arterioles => branch into microscopic capillaries b) carrying blood back too heart: After blood from capillaries surface tissues, the from into venules => merge into larger veins 3) Blood Path of blood flow and pump action of the heart Atria : Receive blood from body and pump it into ventricles Right atruim: Receives blood from superior and inferior venae cavae Left atrium: Receives blood from the two pulmonary veins (one from left side of the heart, one from the right side) Ventricles : Receive blood from atria. Have developed musculature (have thicker walls than atria) Right ventricle: Pumps blood to the lungs Left ventricle: Pumps blood to the all other vessels in the body. Cardiac Cycle : 3 Stages 1) Atrial systole : Atria contract, influx of blood to ventricles 2) Ventricle systole : Ventricles contract, blood flow into circulatory system 3) Complete cardiac diastole : Relaxation of atria and ventricles to refill heart with circulating blood. 1
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Conduction System : Contraction of heart controlled by electrical impulses. Heart has ability to generate its own action potentials. Cells that create these pulses are pacemaker cells . Sinoatrial (SA) node : Pacemaker of heart, located on endocardial surface of right atrium. Spreads impulse throughout atria to create atrial contraction. o Has fastest spontaneous rate of depolarization to threshold (less K+, same Na+ and more Ca2+ permeability) AV node : Slows conduction between atria and ventricles. Allows time for atria to completely fill ventricles before they contract. Impulse travels from AV node to bundle of His . Then travels to Purkinje fibers , which fan across surface of ventricles and signals them to contract. Blood pressure: Pressure exerted by blood against artery wall. Pressure gradient : Pressure difference between beginning and end of a vessel, o Higher pressure = increased flow rate. Contraction of heart increases pressure to blood, but frictional losses occur, pressure drops throughout vessel length. o Flow rate determined by difference in pressure between two ends, NOT absolute pressure. Definitions and Influences on BP : Diastole : Relaxation of heart between muscle contractions. No blood enters blood arteries, but blood continues to leave. Min pressure exerted in arteries during diastole is diastolic pressure , o Average diastolic pressure = 80mmHg.
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