quiz_5_study_sheet

quiz_5_study_sheet - Concepts to Know for Quiz 5 Anatomy of...

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Concepts to Know for Quiz 5 Anatomy of the respiratory system: Trachea : Moves air and branches to bronchi Bronchi : Branch to bronchioles Brochioloes : Composed entirely of smooth muscles and terminate at the alveoli Alveoli : Small sacs surrounded by capillary network where gas exchange occurs between air and blood Intercostal muscles and Diaphram : Innervated by the intercostal nerves and phrenic nerve . Contraction and relaxation of these muscles causes air to enter and exit the lungs, respectively. Pleural membrane : Steps involved in Respiration: See Figure 13-1 in Sherwood text Respiration : Process of moving O2 from the atmosphere to the tissue cells and CO2 from the tissue cells to the atmosphere Ventilation : The mechanical act of moving air in and out of the lungs Air flows from region of high pressure to low pressure o Air will enter lungs if air in alveoli have lower pressure than the atmosphere o Air will leave lungs if air in alveoli have higher pressure than in the atmosphere Pressure changes in lungs generated by activity of respiratory muscles o Expanding thoracic cavity creates less pressure in lungs => air moves into lungs o Reducing volume of thoracic cavity creates higher pressure in lungs => air pushed out of lungs External Respiration : O2 and CO2 is exchanged between air in alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries by diffusion Diffusion : Movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
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o O2 and CO2 exchange dependent on partial pressure gradients (see Sherwood figure 13-26, 4 th or 5 th ed) o partial pressure : The individual pressure exerted by a certain gas within a mixture of gases (e.g. pO2 in air is the pressure exerted by oxygen by air) o partial pressure gradient : Difference in partial pressure between
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quiz_5_study_sheet - Concepts to Know for Quiz 5 Anatomy of...

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