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lecture_7_-_renal_lecture

lecture_7_-_renal_lecture - Major functions of the kidney 1...

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Major functions of the kidney: 1. Excretory – rids the body of nitrogenous waste and acid 2. Homeostasis – maintains normal body concentrations of Na + , K + , Cl - , HCO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , PO 4 - , and water 3. Endocrine – secretes multiple hormones. Renin (enzyme necessary for conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I), erythropoietin (stimulates bone marrow to make RBCs), converts vitamin D3 to the active form 1,25-vitamin D3 (need for healthy bone) Major processes of the kidney: 1. Filtration – removal of some stuff from the blood and dumps it outside. Proteins and cells are not filtered. 2. Reabsorption – selectively reabsorbs what the body needs, allows water variability because water always follows solute (ability to produce concentrated or dilute urine). 3. Secretory – K + and H + can be excreted more than they are filtered. Kidney anatomy: Kidney made up of 2 layers: o Outer layer = cortex o Inner layer = medulla Made up of nephrons o Nephron begins in the Glomerulus (where filtration happens) o Filtrate then moves through tube with series of different properties Proximal convoluted tubule – 2/3 filtered load is reabsorbed. Na + , Cl - , HCO 3 - and water, all AA and glucose reabsorption. Water reabsorbed with solute through water channels and through intracellular junctions. Na + reabsorbed by transporters and by solvent dragged with water All glucose and AA reabsorbed by Na + cotransporter Under acidotic state, conserve virtually all the filtered HCO 3 - .
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