Phys2212_37.1+to+37.8

Phys2212_37.1+to+37.8 - Physics 2212 Waves Lectur e 6 The...

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Unformatted text preview: Physics 2212 Waves Lectur e 6 The End of Classical Physics 10/06/09 Physics 2212 - Lecture 6 2 Physics in the 1800s Physics in the 1800s had a series of major triumphs in which great understanding was gained about the nature of matter, electricity, and light. The standard model of the time was the culmination of the physics of this period and is now called classical physics , with the implications of both high quality and precision and of papering over many important effects (e.g., relativity and quantum mechanics). I n a sense, physicists of the 1800s became overconfident. I n 1900, Lord Kelvin stated, There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement. One of his colleagues asserted that if one knew the positions and velocities of all particles at a particular moment, one could compute the entire past and future of the universe. These views prevailed despite certain loose ends, e.g., the lines in atomic spectra, the energy source of stars, the nature of radioactivity, etc., that seemed to have no explanation within the physics of the classical period. A physics revolution lay just over the horizon. 10/06/09 Physics 2212 - Lecture 6 3 Matter in the 1800s The theory that matter was composed of indivisible atoms hat been around since ancient Greece, but it came to fruition in the 1800s. Boyle in the 1660s and Bernoulli in the 1730s had advanced the idea of atoms and related it to the behavior of gases. I n the early 19 th century, John Dalton related chemical laws to atomic theory and was able to determine the relative masses of atoms of different chemical elements. Amadeo Avagadro postulated that molecules were joined atoms and that volumes of gases at equal temperatures contain the same number of molecules. Thermodynamics and kinetic theory, based on ideas of atoms, were developed. The size of atoms was deduced from deviations from the ideal gas law at high pressures and from the viscosity of gasses. By the 1890s the existence of atoms with diameters of about 0.1 nm was widely accepted. John Dalton (1766 - 1844) Amadeo Avagadro ( 1776 - 1856) 10/06/09 Physics 2212 - Lecture 6 4 Electricity in the 1800s I n 1800 Volta invented the battery, a controlled source of reproducible potential difference that was perfect for creating currents in wires. I t was only two months after Voltas invention that it was discovered that water can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis, revealing an unsuspected connection between electricity and matter. Since water had long been regarded as one of the basic elements, its decomposition forced scientists to reconsider the composition of matter....
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Phys2212_37.1+to+37.8 - Physics 2212 Waves Lectur e 6 The...

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