tranlink - A report from the State of California AIR...

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Unformatted text preview: A report from the State of California AIR RESOURCES BOARD Office of Strategic Planning _ THE _ AIR 'POLLUTION-TRANSPORTATION LINKAGE How vehiclef‘travelpn‘o‘ur rogdsgnd highwqyicffecfs the air we breathe. 1989 THE AIR POLLUTION-TRANSPORTATION LINKAGE AIR QUALITY has been an important concern of Californians for more than three decades. Driven by considerable efforts in the development and research of air pollu- tion control technology, the state has devel- oped an air pollution control program that is the most aggrssive in the nation. Cali- fornia has sought clean air by regulating all major, and many minor, source of air pollution. Industrial emissions have been significantly reduced. As a result of the Air Resources Bond's motor vehicle emission standards, new vehicles are 80% cleaner than those manufactured in the 19705. However, despite these substantial efforts, Californians continue to be plagued with an air pollution problem that is the worst in the nation. A major issue is California’s continued and growing reliance on the private car. Growth in both the number of operating vehicles and in the usage of those vehicles, is a detriment to the technical progress being made as cleaner new cars replace older, high-polluting vehicles. In fact, the fast and steady growth in vehicle usage over the past 20 years has resulted not only in increased air pollution, but also in un- bearable and rapidly worsening traffic con. gestion that threatens to render major urban areas immobile. Another dimension of this problem is conservation of energy resources. Solutions to air and traffic problems go hand in hand with energy conservation and security, and with reducing carbon dioxide concentration associated with global warming, or the "greenhouse effect" The crisis nature of air pollution, congestion, and energy use associated with the transportation sector calls for forward thinking and cooperative action from government and industry, as well as the public at large In 1988, the California Legislature enacted the California Clean Air Act, grant- ing new authority to the state’s local air pol- lution control districts to adopt and enforce transportation connol measures ('1' CMs). In major urban areas, this law will result in greatly enhanced efforts to modify transpor- tation habits and to reduce reliance on the single occupant vehicle The Air Resources Board is committed to working closely with the State Department of Transportation and other regional and local agencies to achieve the Act's goals. These combined efforts are needed not only to achieve healthy air, but also to ensure that reasonable levels of mobility are maintained into the 21 st cen- tury. The invigorated efforts to solve these problems must be accompanied with an understanding of the interrelationships of air pollution and vehicle activity. The pur- pose of this report is to explain how and to what extent air pollution is being generated on urban roadways and to provide a basis for designing TCMs that will be effective in reducing both air pollution and traffic con- gestion. HOW DOES AIR POLLUTION DAMAGE OUR HEALTH AND ECONOMY? Air pollution is part of everyday life for millions of Californians. Twelve million residents of Southern California are uposed regularly to levels of air pollution that can cause nausea, headaches, eye irritation, and dizz'ness, even in healthy adults. Air pollution affects everyone to some degree; and, over half of the population falls into the category deemed "sensitive" to air pollution. People in this category are sus— ceptible to severe health damage from air pollution. These are Californians who suffer from heart and lung diseases; asthmatics; children under the age of 14, whose lungs are still developing; persons over 65, whose immune systems have been weakened with age; and athletes, who as they exercise, are especially vulnerable to air pollution effects. To protect health, the Air Resource Board sets air quality standards which are based on research that documents the level at which pollutants cause damage. Research has established that air pollution: Q Aggravates cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. O Adds stress to the cardiovascular system, forcing the heart and lungs to work harder. I Reduces the lung’s ability to exhale air. Loss of lung capacity is part of the body’s natural aging process, but exposure to air pollution speeds up this process. 0 Damages cells in the airways of the respiratory system. I Damages the lungs even after symp- toms of minor irritation disappear. 0 May contribute to the development of diseases including bronchitis, emphysema, and cancer. Air quality standards are set for the "ambient air." Concentrations of air pollut- ants at industrial or automobile sources may be significantly higher than the standards in the immediate vicinity. Thus, individuals who spend a significant amount of time in congestion each day can be exposed to much higher levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and the toxic air contaminants found in vehicle exhatst Air pollution is also responsible for considerable damage to California agricul- ture. This industry could be losing from $150 million to $1 billion a year to smog. Air pollution is a major reason why such crops as spinach, celery, lettuce, tomatoes, string beans, and cucumba's are no longer grown commercially in and around Los Angeles County. Smog damages forests and range and pasture grasses which produce almost $700 million in revenue for the state each year. These natural ecosystems provide Califor- nians with recreation and watershed land, as well as supporting the timber and livestock industries. HOW BAD IS THE AIR IN CALIFORNIA? , Although considerable effort has been made to clean up the air, much more progress is needed. Major urban centers in California have the most persistent air quality problems in the nation. The state’s sunny, warm climate and topography are, unfortunately, ideal for pollution build-up. All of the major urban areas in the state exceed the state health-based standards for ozone (03) and inhalable particulates (PMIO), and most of these areas exceed the carbon monoxide (CO) standard. (See Figure 1). The South Coast Air Basin also exceeds the nitrogen dioxide (NOZ) stan- dard. SEVENTYOFAIRPOLLUTIONPROBLEM 03ANDCOLEVESVSSTATESTANDARD \ ii‘ .. PERCENT OF DAYS OVER STATE STANDARD 1987 SUMMER a WINTER SEASONS 03 CO PM1O Figure 2 Most urban areas exceed one or more standards between 40 and 130 days per year. In the Los Angeles Basin, health- based standards are exceeded roughly 200 days per year. Figure 2 indicates the high percentage of summer days that exceed safe levels of ozone concentrations, the winter days that exceed the CO standard, and the year-round percentage of days over the PMlO standard. MUCH AIR POLLUTION IS FROM CARS AND TRUCKS? When compared to the total pollu- tion emitted, ARB estimates that cars and trucks contributed 43% of the reactive or- ganic gases (ROG), 57% of the nitrogen oxides (N Ox), and 82% of the carbon mon- oxide (CO) in the major urban areas of Cali- fornia in 1987 (see Figure 3). Reactive or- ganic gases and nitrogen oxides react in the presence of sunlight to form ozone, a major ingredient of smog. URBAN POLLUTION FROM CARS AND TRUCKS Percent of Total '87 Figure 3 Cars and trucks emit relatiVely little particulates from their exhaust. However, airborne particulates (PMIO) are composed of up to 35% aerosols which are in large part the result of atmospheric chemical reactions of the NOx and ROG emitted from cars and trucks. Of the PMlO which is directly emit- ted from both stationary and mobile sources, over half is dust kicked up by motor vehicle activity on roadways. Thus, a majority of the photochemical ozone and urban PMIO problem and virtually all of the CO problem is attribut- able to motor vehicles. The carbon dioxide (C02) that is formed by burning fossil fuels is hastening the potentially damaging trend of global ' warming. Transportation sources are re- sponsible for roughly one third of the C02 emissions in the US. Global warming may bring about serious climatic changes and other damages to the environment. HOW DOES VEHICLE OPERATION AFFECT AIR POLLUTION? Vehicles emit different levels of air pollution during three distinct phases: the cold start mode, the hot soak evaporative mode, and the hot stabilized mode. Cold start emissions occur during the first few minutes of the trip when the vehicle engine and catalytic converter are operating cold. The hot soak, or evaporative emissions occur after the vehicle is parked and the heat remaining inthe engine forces gasoline still in the carburetor or fuel system to "boil off." During the hot stabilized mode, the period after the engine warms up, relatively low levels of pollution are emitted for each mile driven. The total running exhaust emissions are dependent on the length and speed (or running time) of the trip. Figure 4 compares vehicle emissions from short trips to emissions from long trips with greater running exhaust emissions. (Most vehicle trips in urban areas are short trips.) The implication is simple. A five- HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS 8‘.’ TRIP 23 :um RUNMNG I Exuusr . mile trip produces almost as much air pollu— tion as a trip twice as long. Once a vehicle is started and driven for a few minutes, much of the damage to air quality is done. There- fore, redudng the number of trips taken is important to clean air. The chart points out the importance of engine starts on air pollution emissions. Hot start emissions are roughly 80% less than cold start emissions for HC5, and even more for CO. Technology is being devel- oped to reduce emissions from coldstarts; however, this technology will not be fully integrated into the fleet until after the turn of the century. Thus, combining trips to eliminate cold starts (also known as "trip chaining") is beneficial to air quality. In general, TCMs designed to im- prove air quality must reduce the number of trips taken and also the vehicle miles trav- eled or trip length. HOW DOES TRAFFIC CONGESTION IMPACT AIR EMISSIONS? As ever increasing volumes of motor vehicles find their way to urban roadways, traffic conditions worsen. Vehicle operating hours associated with normal urban activity are accumulating at an alarming rate from traffic jam delays. Delay hours on state highways in heavily congested urban areas are increasing as much as 15% per year. Each vehicle hour of operation that occurs from traffic hold-ups is associated with an adverse air pollution impact. Congestion does not increase either the cold start or end-of-trip emissions, but does increase running emissions. An ex- ample of this for hydrocarbon emissions is shown in Figure 5. The chart contrasts two lO—mile trips - one taking 11 minutes and one taking 30 minutes. The 19 minutes of delay inc-eases running emissions by 250% in this instance RUNNING EXHAUST HC EMISSIONS TEN MILE TRIP 2 GRAMS TEN MILES IN \ summer. it}: ‘7 cams ~01-..-‘ovr_vi_ Figure 5 Estimates of congestion in the Los Angeles area indicate that roughly 10% of total travel occurs unda- congested condi- tions. If current trends continue to the year 2010, then roughly 50% of travel will occur under congested conditions. At current levels of vehicle activity, trip ends and trip length play a more impor- tant role in air quality control than conges- tion by itself; however, if current trends continue, congestion will be a major cause of air pollution by the turn of the century. There is a trade-off to consider when attempting to control emissions by improv- ing traffic flow. Driving habits are more influenced by travel time than the length of the trip. An increase in average travel speed tends to encourage individuals to select homes that are farther from their jobs or to travel farther to shopping areas. This, in turn, can create lower density land use than is desired, a greater need for cars, longer travel distances, and reduced use of alterna- tive, 15$ polluting modes of travel. As a result, efforts to relieve congestion need to be combined with comprehensive demand management programs to ensure that in- creases in travel do not overwhelm the benefits of congestion relief. HOW DOES PEAK HOUR, FREEWAY TRAFFIC IMPACT AIR POLLUTION? Because congestion relief is of para- mount concern to the transportation sector, greatest attattion has been given to modify~ ing peak-hour travel patterns (that is, travel from approximately 6 to 9 am and from 3 to 6 pm) on freeways. These are the hours when the most severe congestion occurs in urban areas. However, as shown in Figure 6, only 40% of the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and trips occur during peak hours in the South Coast Air Basin. Traffic studis for urban areas indicate that local arterials and collector streets account for over half of urban VMT (see Figure 7). TRAVEL BY TIME OF DAY South Coast ~ 1934 OFF PEAK VMT fifififififim PM PEAK VM1 aaizm. AM PEAK VMT agave Figure 6 VMT DISTRIBUTION Urban Areas - 1987 ARTEHIALS . ‘35 Figure 7 Most emissions occur at off-peak hours and on loal streets and arterials. Therefore, daigners of TCMs need to produce strate- gies that reduce trips throughout the day, and which reduce travel on both local streets and freeWays. HOW IS GROWTH AFFECTING AIR POLLUTION FROM CARS AND TRUCKS? Caltrans estimates that VMT has been growing (+5% per year) at more than twice the rate of population growth (+2% per year), and that congestion in major urban areas is growing at a much faster rate (about 15% per year). Not only are more of us driving each year, but we are also, on the average, driving more. CURRENT EMISSION TRENDS Ozone Precursors YEAR 1987 Figure 8 ARB’s efforts have produced cars that are 80% cleaner than 20 years ago. Despite growth in vehicle usage, the state’s control program is expected to reduce vehicle emissions by about half over the next 10 years. Around the year 2000, how- ever, technical controls will no longer com- pensate for growth. Vehicle emissions will then begin to increase well before we have attained clean air standards (See Figure 8). WHAT IS THE ARB DOING TO CLEAN UP CARS AND TRUCKS? 'I'he ARB has adopted the most strin- gent vehicle controls in the country and will continue to require all feasible control tech- nology on tomorrow's cars. The ARB's Post-1987 Motor Vehicle Plan commits the Board to improvements in the state‘ 5 smog check program, greater durability for anis- sion-related vehicle components, more strin- gent standards for cars and trucks, and greater use of alternative fuels such as methanol, compressed natural gas, and electric vehicles. The Motor Vehicle Plan will help to counter the upward emission trad pro- jected after the year 2000. However, obtain- ing the emission reductions needed to attain ambient air quality standards will necessi- tate using transportation control measures to curtail vehicle usage. WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE CALIFORNIA CLEAN AIR ACT? The California Clean Air Act of 1988 (the Act) requires areas that currently ex- ceed state ambient air quality standards to develop new plans to attain these standards. The Act requires reductions from all sourCes of pollution -— large and small industry, mobile sources, household useof polluting products, and the transportation sector. Under the Act, air pollution control districts are required to ad0pt and enforce reasona- bly available transporta’don control meas~ ures to the extent necessary to attain and maintain standards. The Act also requires all nonattainment areas to achieve a 5% per year emission reduction for each pollutant. Many areas will depend on the effective use of transportation control measures to meet this goal. Areas with "severe" air pollution, those that cannot reach state standards by 1997, are required to include transportation control measures to achieve an average vehicle ridership of 1.5 persons or more during weekday commute hours. Similarly, the Act calls for no net increase in vehicle emissions after 1997. Although the Act does not specify which areas will be classified as severe, it is probable that the state’s larger urban areas, those with populations of 500,000 or more, will be in this category. Finally, the Act requires districts to develop programs to control emissions from indirect sources or traffic attractors such as housing developments, office parks, and shopping centers. WHAT KIND OF EFFORT IS NEEDED TO MEET THE GOALS OFTHE ACT? In order to implement the require— ments of the Act, it is clear that state and local air pollution and transportation agencies, as well as cities and counties, need to work together closely to develop mutu- ally supportive air quality and mobility goals. It is also clear that public support is critical to this effort Peak-hour average vehicle ridership in most California urban areas is currently estimated at 1.1 persons per vehicle. In- creasing this average to the 15 required by the Act will necessitate a major commitment on the part of government, employers, and the public to support travel behavior change. To solve the joint problems of air pol- lution and gridlock, transportation and air quality planners must identify ways to reduce per capita trip generation, vastly increase transit options, and employ new technologies like telecommunications to reduce trips. The mitigation of traffic-generated air pollution from indirect SOurces such as housing developments, shopping centers, and major employment centers, will need to be closely linked with land use decisions. The air districts and local governments must develop new methods to ensure that land use decisions be made with forethought and consistency to reinforce clean air objectives and to meet future transportation needs. The Air Resources Board and Cal- trans will work with local air pollution districts, regional transportation agendas, and general local governments to define the most effective ways to implement the trans- portation provisions of the Act. The ARB’s goal is to integrate air quality objectives into transportation planning so that the system’s operation and the construction of new facilities support air pollution control ef- forts. HOW CAN EACH OF US REDUCE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION SOURCES? It should be clear to the reader by now that the enormity and importance of the task of reducing air pollution and traffic congestion demands the participation of more than government and industry. The "Clean Air Challenge" must become a per- sonal challenge for each of us. Private citi- zens can take personal steps toward clean- ing the air by". 1. Reducing personal auto trips. 2. Keeping private auto engines and smog control systems in top work- ing condition. 3. Choosing low pollution products, such as water based paints and clean fuels, when available. 4. Supporting local regulation and activities done in the interest of ' clean air. CLEAN AIR TRANSPORTATION CHOICES ROG Emissions (Per Person) ZWile Trip 3 Milkmen! INPOOL [6 Arm) (Put 1 Rio.) mm with an In mum mum’- WL ram)- ’ nus Mum! I I M o - .‘h‘ Figure 9 fl 6 I A u s I a v law-n. We can reduce auto trips by making mode choices that are less polluting (see Figure 9), or by planning ahead so that short trips may be linked (chained) together. If every driver were to take on a pasonal commitment to reduce trips by 10%, this marginal effort and inconvenience to the individual would result in a significant benefit to air quality, traffic congestion, energy conservation, and to our quality of life. \ For copiesafth'sreport, please write to: Ofiicz af 5:121:32}: Planning Air Rsourczs Board Po. Box 2815 Sammie, CA. 95812 lJ .32 .._Eo_=.u 52.2.3 .gafifiagég .2525ch we gov—$82 352:5 52.53 .32 .Enozzb cue—:52 .83.on 3:25.235 9: .6320:— 3 .848 "<3 .5352 LEEU :— EEEEm .323 u:- 355. «:8 u_==._. 9.3.6: 02"— 800: .35: ._.._. v... $5335: #2 20.3.; 5.5202 .32 6.22:: «858: 283 "0.9 629.223 c.5233:— >a=cm u:- .§===£ :< 3:20 3:55 .6 =a=u< 9.2-... 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(Health and Safety Code Sections 40716-17) ROLE OF COGS - Air pollution control districts may establish the emission reduc— tions targets for transportation sources and delegate the preparation of transporta- tion control plans to Councils of Government (COGS) or other regional agendas. (H&SC Sec. 40717 (b) - (0) TRANSPORTATION CONTROL MEASURES AND PLANS - for all areas, as necessary for attainment. (H&SC Sec. 40918 (a)(3)) Must include: Reasonably available transportation control measures, Area source and indirect source programs, Public education programs, Schedule for implementing transportation control measures, Identification and agreements from implementing agencies, and Monitoring and compliance procedures. PLANS FOR SERIOUS AREAS - Must also include transportation measures to significantly reduce the rate of increase in vehicle travel. (Hazsc Sec. 40919 (a)(3)) PLANS FOR SEVERE AREAS - In addition must provide for. (H&SC Sec 40920 (a) (2) - (3)) O 1.5 vehicle occupancy during weekday commute hours by 1999, O No net increase in vehicle emissions after 1997, and 0 Low emission vehicle fleets (alternative fuels); HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK TRAFFIC GUIDELINES - Air Resources Board with Cal- trans and the California Highway Patrol to establish a task force to develop guide- lines for traffic measures affecting heavy-duty truch prior to district adoption of truck controls. (H&SC Sec. 40717.5 SCAQMD exempt) PLAN REVIEW - Air Resources Board must review plan to ensure every reasonable action is taken to achieve standards at earliest practicable date. CI-I&SC Sec 41503.5) ...
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tranlink - A report from the State of California AIR...

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