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phil 27 final questions

phil 27 final questions - Final Exam Study Guide I Essay 1...

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Final Exam Study Guide I. Essay: 1. a) Decisions should be made rationally. Formal organizations are there so that the individuals in the company fulfill their goals. They have to act instrumentally. They have to make social decisions, which means they act on the productiveness and effectiveness of the company and not the individual self. They are impersonal. The company works like a machine. Each individual has a part to fulfill and each person is replaceable, like parts in a machine. The law and principles of morality are stated in the company goals, but if it interferes with the economical aspect, there is no morality. They have to act in a way that is the most effective. The only principles of morality that matter are ones that coincide with the companies goals. The organization is not held to the standard of morality that individuals in society are held to. Therefore, they are not responsible for any supposed breaking of society moral standards. Social decisions are not made based on the principles of morality. If there is morality, it is different from the ones that individuals use to make individual decisions. Limiting operating conditions are the upper limit to organization’s operations. They are not instrumentally rational. Morality is only possible relevant in limiting operating conditions. Even so, it should not matter because morality is not tangible. When you step into a company, your moral views are different. Individual moral ideas in normal life are one separate entity, while the company’s ideas are another entity. This causes moral schizophrenia. The individual is torn between what they think is morally right and what the company think is efficient, but not necessarily morally correct. The individual is being alienated from his actions when they are turned into social decisions. Their decisions and actions are turned into decisions and actions of others. He is being alienated from other men and from morality. He becomes dehumanized and demoralized. In conclusion, Ladd believes that you cannot have both morality and rational decision making in a bureaucratic organizations. In order to survive in this society, rational decision-making overrides morality. b) Criticism: Modern bureaucratic organizations profess moral goals that generate moral obligations and moral views, such as moral goals in their mission statement. People in business and individuals in these organizations become committed to the goals and standards of their moral goals or mission statements. If we take on Ladd’s argument of utilizing the standard form of rationality in decision making process, then we see that companies are not rationally making decision to meet their goals if they are not committed to maximizing their moral goals. If a company has moral goals, then morality is relevant in the organization and its goals must be maximize.
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