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PPT_CH11 - Don Hellriegel Susan E Jackson John W Slocum Jr...

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Unformatted text preview: Don Hellriegel Susan E. Jackson John W. Slocum, Jr. MANAGING: A COMPETENCY BASED APPROACH 11 Edition Chapter 11—Designing Organizations Prepared by Argie Butler Texas A&M University Learning Goals 1. Explain the two fundamental principles of designing organizations 2. State the major concepts of vertical organizational design 3. Describe four types of horizontal organizational design 4. Describe the major options for achieving organizational integration Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.1 Organization chart: a diagram that illustrates the reporting lines between units and people within the organization The organization chart conveys four kinds of information? Boxes represent different units Titles in each box show the work performed by that person Reporting relationships are shown by the lines connecting superiors and subordinates Levels of the organization are indicated by the number of vertical layers in the chart Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.2 Chairman, President and CEO Sr. Vice President, Human Resources Executive Vice President, Logistics & Distribution SVP, South Central Division Region 1 Executive Vice President, Store Operations SVP, South East Division Region 2 SVP, Western Division Region 3 District Manager Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.3 (Adapted from Figure 11.1) District Manager District Manager “I’ve often thought that after you get organized, you ought to throw away the organization chart. It really doesn’t show who has the power and how things really work.” David Packard, Cofounder, Hewlett-Packard Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.4 Organization is composed of units that work on specialized tasks using different work methods and requiring employees with unique competencies Division of labor: work of the organization is divided into smaller tasks Specialization: process of identifying particular tasks and assigning them to departments, teams, or divisions Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.5 Various units coordinate their work to achieve common goals Snapshot “Coordination is like professional sports: It looks easy, but when you’re on the field, you see how difficult it is. The more people need to work with each other to reach the organization’s goal, the more coordination is needed. However, there is a cost (meeting time, travel, uniform policies) to achieving integration.” Mike Lazaridis, President, Research in Motion, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.6 Vertical Design Hierarchy: a pyramid showing relationships among levels Span of control: the number of employees directly reporting to a person 1. Competence of both the manager and the employee 2. Similarity or dissimilarity of tasks being supervised 3. Incidence of new problems in the manager’s department 4. Extent of clear operating standards and rules Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.7 (continued) Vertical Design Authority: right to make a decision Responsibility: an employee’s duty to perform the assigned task Accountability: manager’s expectation that the employee will accept credit or blame for his or her work Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.8 “Ken Lay, you have completely failed at the job you were hired to perform. If this lack of accountability would have occurred farther down the organization, no one would hesitate to fire the person.” Jim Schwieger, former Enron Employee Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.9 Vertical Design Delegation: process of giving authority to a person (or group or team) to make decisions and act in certain situations Barriers to delegation Failure to define authority and responsibility clearly Managers fear to delegate to others Cultural values Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.10 Vertical Design: Building Blocks for Effective Delegation Establish goals and standards Involvement Ensure clarity Expect completed work Provide training Timely feedback Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.11 Centralization: concentration of authority at the top of an organization or department Decentralization: delegation of authority to lower level employees or departments No absolutes for centralization versus decentralization Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.12 Desire for uniformity of policy Environmental influences that require uniformity Cost of decisions Need for formal control mechanisms Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.13 Competency levels of managers and employees Functional design Major types Product design Network design Geographical design Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.14 Grouping managers and employees according to their areas of expertise and the resources they use to perform their jobs Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.15 CEO Chief Financial Officer Chief Operating Officer General Counsel Treasurer Financial Services Strategic Planning Styling Officer Human Resources Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.16 (Adapted from Figure 11.2) Potential Benefits Supports skill specialization Reduces duplication of resources & increases coordination with the function Enhances career development & training within functional area Allows superiors and subordinates to share common expertise Promotes high-quality technical decision making Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.17 Potential Pitfalls Inadequate communication across functional areas Conflicts over product priorities Focus on departmental rather than organizational issues and goals Develops managers who are experts only in a narrow field All functions that contribute to a product are organized under one manager Divides the organization into selfcontained units Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.18 Chairman & Chief Executive Officer Information Systems & Technology Land Systems Combat Systems Marine Systems Ordinance & Tactical Systems Bath Iron Works Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.19 (Adapted from Figure 11.3) Aerospace Armament Systems Aviation Services Electric Boat Potential Benefits Permits fast changes in a product line Allows greater product line visibility Fosters a concern for customer demand Clearly defines responsibilities for each product line Develops managers who can think across functional lines Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.20 Potential Pitfalls Inefficient utilization of skills and resources Not fostering coordination of activities across product lines Encourages politics and conflicts in resource allocation across product lines Limits career mobility for personnel outside their own product lines Organizes activities around location Helps to develop competitive advantage in each region according to that area’s customers, competitors, and other factors Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.21 Potential Benefits Facilities and the equipment used for production and/or distribution all in one place, saving time and costs Able to develop expertise in solving problems unique to one location Understanding of customers’ problems and desires in the location Getting production closer to raw materials and suppliers Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.22 Potential Pitfalls Duplication of functions, to varying degrees, at each regional or individual unit location Conflict between each location’s goals and the organization’s goals Adds levels of management and extensive use of rules and regulations to coordinate and ensure uniformity of quality among locations Network Design Subcontracts some or many of its operations to other firms and coordinates them to accomplish specific goals Sometimes called virtual organizations Connects people regardless of their locations Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.23 Potential Benefits Ability to gain special knowledge and skills of others without having to hire employees Allows managers the flexibility to work with a wide variety of different suppliers, customers, and other organizations Potential Pitfalls Other organizations may fail to live up to established deadlines Managers must constantly monitor the quality of work provided by other organizations Employees in the outsourced organization may not hold the same values and sense of time urgency to which employees in the organization are committed Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.24 Legal Makeup Artists Costume Designers Agents Actors Computer Hardware Software Marketing Future Games Senior Managers of DreamWorks, SKG Technicians Media Relations Talent Scouts Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.25 (Adapted from Figure 11.4) Organic Tasks tend to be ill defined Tasks are continually adjusted and redefined through communication as situations change Network structure of control, authority, and communication Mechanistic Tasks are highly specialized Tasks tend to remain rigidly defined unless changed by top management Specific roles are prescribed for each employee (continued) Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.26 (Adapted from Table 11.1) Organic Communication and decision making are both vertical and horizontal, depending on where information and expertise reside Communication emphasizes the form of mutual influence and advice among all levels Mechanistic Hierarchical structure of control, authority, and communication Communication and decision making are primarily vertical, topdown Communication emphasizes directions and decisions issued by superiors Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.27 (Adapted from Table 11.1) Interdependence: the degree of coordination required between individuals and units to transform information and raw materials into goods and services Pooled interdependence: little sharing of information or resources among individuals within a unit or among units in the performance of tasks (e.g., golf teams) Output Input Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.28 Input Input Organizational Integration: Types of Interdependence (cont’d) Sequential interdependence: the orderly stepby-step flow of information, tasks, and resources from one individual or team to another within the same unit or from one unit to another (e.g., football teams) Input Output Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.29 Organizational Integration: Types of Interdependence (cont’d) Reciprocal interdependence: the need for every individual and unit to work with every other individual and unit; information and resources flow back and forth freely until the goal is achieved (e.g., volleyball teams) Input Output Input Output Chapter 11: PowerPoint 11.30 Input Output ...
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