PHYSICS 002C Lecture 14

PHYSICS 002C Lecture 14 - PHYSICS 002C Lecture 14 Serway...

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PHYSICS 002C Lecture 14 April 29, 2009 Serway and Jewett Chapter 26 – Image formation Chap 26.1 Flat mirrors Geometric optics is the science of tracing rays through an optical system using (1) the laws of reflection and refraction, (2) the concept of refractive index, and (3) the common notion that light rays travel in straight lines in a uniform medium. Ray tracing – The law of reflection ' 1 1 can be used to trace rays from a point source of light (the object) to see where a flat mirror makes you think the object is, namely where its image is. The path of light through an optical system (consisting of lenses, mirrors, and apertures) Begins at an object from which rays of light emanate, Forms various real and virtual images, Is finally detected by eye or camera, or absorbed by a target. An image is an illusory copy of an object, such that the light rays coming from the image appear to be emitted from the copy [see footnote 2, p. 868]. Light rays from a point on an object are said to form a real image at a point where they cross each other. A virtual image of a point on an object is said to be located at a point in space from which rays projected back are apparently diverging. Note: A real image differs from an object because the latter has no incoming rays! Object ( O ) and image ( I ) distances, p and q Object and image heights, h and h’ Magnification ( M ) Multiple mirrors – Hall of mirrors, Corner cube, Kaleidoscope Front surface mirror for dentists 1
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Chap 26.2 Curved mirrors Spherical mirrors – Concave and Convex Focal length, f is the image location q when the object is at p= . A horizontal ray hitting a concave mirror surface at an angle and height h passes through the axis at the focus. Then we have 2 sin ) ( sin f R R h , so R R h 2 1 2 sin sin 1 . If the object is (farther from / closer to) the mirror than the focus, the image is (inverted / upright) and in (front / back) of the mirror. For a convex mirror, the angles are the same, so the answer is the same, except R is negative and so is f . If the object is not at infinity, the image distance q is also determined by geometry. Once you know the focal length, the image of a point on the object is found by drawing 2 rays: one that goes back and forth through the center of curvature and one horizontal ray that reflects back through the focus. For small angles we have The lens formula f q p 1 1 1 - see table 26.1 for sign conventions. 3
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Chap 26.3 – Transmission through transparent surfaces Snell’s law – 2 2 1 1 sin sin n n can be used to trace rays through flat and curved transparent surfaces. The
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This note was uploaded on 06/08/2009 for the course PHYS 2c taught by Professor All during the Spring '08 term at UC Riverside.

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PHYSICS 002C Lecture 14 - PHYSICS 002C Lecture 14 Serway...

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