PHYSICS 002C Lecture 26

PHYSICS 002C Lecture 26 - PHYSICS 002C Lecture 26 June 1,...

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PHYSICS 002C Lecture 26 June 1, 2009 Serway and Jewett Chapter 30 – Nuclear Physics Preamble Who cares about nuclear physics? Especially for biologists, for whom it would seem that the relevant size objects are enzymes (10 nm) or a people (1m), learning more about the nucleus (1fm) than its charge Z and atomic mass A is going too far! Maybe not. For example, except for the actual and perceived biological hazards of radioactive waste, nuclear power would be the solution to the energy problem [foreign oil, depletion of fossil fuels, rising levels of pollution, CO 2 levels, etc.]. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a great way to see the chemical and physical structure of a human body with sub-mm resolution. Subatomic particles are used for killing tumor cells, and muons are proposed by UCR’s Prof. Nagamine as a relatively noninvasive probe of brain function. Neutrons are widely used for measuring properties of biomaterials via neutron scattering. Radio isotopes P 32 , H 3 (tritium), and S 35 are commonly used in bio labs to trace the components of chemical reactions and to separate proteins (Southern blotting) and DNA. Positron emission tomography ( PET ) uses O 15 , F 18 , N 13 , C 11 to locate and image hungry tumors in the brain and as an alternative to computed x-ray tomography (CAT) scans for diagnosis of ischemia. Besides all this, it is good to be informed about topics that other people might use to make you do what they want if you are credulous, and to have some inkling of how the world is framed and what are its immutable laws and how amazing it is that there are living creatures courageous enough to subject their sacred hypotheses to the arbiter of truth. Q: What is the arbiter of truth? (a) Mathematical theory; (b) Experiment; (c) Writings in a sacred book; (d) Opinion polls; (e) The US Supreme Court. OUTLINE 1. What is the atomic nucleus made of? 2. How big is it? 3. What holds it together? 4. Does quantum mechanics work for the nucleus? 5. Why does the sun burn? 6. Nuclear Alchemy 7. Radioactivity and biohazards 8. Nuclear fall-out 9. Radioactive decay rates 10. Alpha particle emission 11. Beta decay 1
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Chap 30.1 The nucleus of the atom The periodic characteristics of the chemical elements systematized by Mendeleev ; Their ordering by atomic number Z – the nuclear charge in units of the elementary charge e =1.602×10 -19 C - , by Moseley; The fact that the isotopes have masses that are close to integer multiples of the mass of carbon divided by 12; The discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932; All made it evident that the nuclei of atoms are composed of certain numbers Z
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This note was uploaded on 06/08/2009 for the course PHYS 2c taught by Professor All during the Spring '08 term at UC Riverside.

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PHYSICS 002C Lecture 26 - PHYSICS 002C Lecture 26 June 1,...

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