Clinic 10 - R.A. Luben Biochemistry120 June 2009 1 New York...

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1 R.A. Luben Biochemistry120 June 2009
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2 New York Times, Jan. 9, 2006
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Disease Burden of Diabetes Mellitus Leading cause of blindness (12.5% of cases) Leading cause of kidney failure (42% of cases) 50% of all non-traumatic amputations 2.5x increase risk of stroke 2-4x increase in cardiovascular mortality DM responsible for 25% of cardiac surgeries Mortality in DM: 70% due to Cardiovascular disease
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DIABETES MELLITUS -- A DISEASE OF  METABOLIC INTEGRATION  Diabetes mellitus in its various forms is the most common of all endocrine diseases. It affects at least 5% and possibly as much as 30% of the U.S. population. All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations.
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Insulin Resistance: The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) Normal Diabetic Two major features of diabetes: 1) Fasting blood glucose is high (stays high constantly). 2) Glucose ingested at meals is cleared very slowly.
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Criteria for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Positive findings from any two of the following tests on different days: Symptoms of diabetes mellitus* plus casual (non-fasting) plasma glucose concentration >=200 mg per dL (11.1 mmol per L) or FPG >=126 mg per dL (7.0 mmol per L) or 2hrPPG >=200 mg per dL (11.1 mmol per L) after a 75-g glucose load ---------------------------------------------------------------------- FPG=fasting plasma glucose; 2hrPPG=two-hour postprandial glucose. Normal: FPG <110 mg per dL; 2hrPPG <140 mg per dL (7.75 mmol per L) *--Symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia or unexplained weight loss.
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  There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 and Type 2 . Both are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia Type 1: Profound lack of insulin Type 2: Insulin may be secreted, but is ineffective at the
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Clinic 10 - R.A. Luben Biochemistry120 June 2009 1 New York...

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