Lec25 - Lecture 25 Signal Transduction 1 Overview of...

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Lecture 25 Signal Transduction 1 Overview of Signaling Molecules and their Receptors Lodish 6th ed. Chapters 7.7, 15, and 16 (L.5th edition Chapters 13-14)
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Extracellular Signals Chemical (molecules, small ions) Physical (mechanical forces, light, temperature) Signal transduction is the process of converting extracellular signals into cellular responses. Environmental signals “Environment - to - cell signaling” Cellular signals “Cell - to - cell signaling” Molecules secreted by cells into the environment Ex: Pheromones which influence the behavior and/or gene expression program of other cells and organisms of the same species (e.g. mating pheromones). Cellular molecules that convey signals to other cells within the same organism . Ex: Hormones, morphogens, neurotransmitters We will focus on this
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Modes of intercellular signaling & Distances involved (in animals) Endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Direct cell-cell interactions Signal Molecule or LIGAND Signal recognition protein or RECEPTOR Most classes of hormones (up to several meters) Neurotransmitters (micrometers) Growth factors (micrometers) Note: Growth factors are hormones that also signal to distant target cells Lodish 6th ed. Fig. 15-2
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Two major signaling pathways via cell-surface receptors or intracellular receptors Ligands (mostly hydrophilic hormones) Membrane receptors Induction of specific cellular responses (functions) Second messengers & Signal transduction cascades via protein phosphorylation (signal amplification) Gene regulation Other functions (metabolism, etc..) Gene regulation Intracellular nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors Ligands (lipophilic hormones) Diffusion through membranes Generally Induction of slow genomic responses (but also rapid non-genomic effects have been observed).
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