History 4C ESSAYS from ANDY

History 4C ESSAYS from ANDY - 14:46:00 Essay Section I...

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30/10/2007 14:46:00 Essay Section I. Secularism Nov. 1, 1755—Lisbon Earthquake occurred [over 50% died]. Survivors scattered everywhere—no place to go!! Destroyed a major cultural area. o Earthquake shook a lot more than the city—Lisbon=capital city of a very devout Catholic country; struck on a very very religious holiday (All Soul’s Day) Enlightenment ideals embraced a secular approach to government—“absolutism was increasingly the bane of a wide spectrum of thoughtful opinion” ( Western Civilization : Coffin & Stacy, pg. 631). Definite progression from viewing the monarch as a “divine ruler;” the “death of God” evident as a force within society. Enlightenment ideals emphasized religion as a personal matter—religion was one’s own personal conviction(s). “I do not wish to open window’s into men’s souls” (Queen Elizabeth I {reign: 1558-1603} ) +problems arose when religious/faith issues conflicted with reason II. Rationality A . Scientific Rev. occurred previous to Enlightenment (over the course of the 16 th and 17 th centuries)—embraced rationality o 18 th century philosophers argued that everything occurred with a ‘silver’ lining; B. 18 th century thought: Poem on the disaster of Lisbon , Candide=strongly influenced by the earthquake; emphasized how philosophers/scientists/citizens/etc. should try to understand earthquake as something natural, NOT supernatural (again, we see the secularism!!) C. Roots in scientific revolution—“enlightenment” was used to describe seeking of truth. .expression of intellectual maturity o +Enlightenment=heavily influenced by scientific discovery/philosophical ‘evolution’ + Enlightenment thinkers wanted to use reason—above anything else, enlightenment thinkers valued intellect +Hated injustice—sought progress thru critical thinking, equality, fairness +Religious toleration +greater emphasis was placed on intellect than on religion—esp. by the 18 th century +description, classification, analysis III. Individuality A. Immanual Kant= “Have the courage to know!” (understand/perceive things for yourself!! Urge to find out for thyself)
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o +Enlightenment thinkers viewed Church/dominant pol. institutions as the enemies for greater progress church=believed they were the oppressors of thought, freedom, toleration called ppl. to look to themselves for answers/enlightenment—NOT religion, religious figures, etc. (emphasizing the individual) B. =How did [enlightenment ideals] have influence on events in France and st. domingue from 1789-1799? ((France)) ~OBVIOUS ((St. Domingue )) ~Enlightenment raised discussion as pertaining to equality, and the rights of citizens ~slaves began to understand their economic influence/importance in the national/international community
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This note was uploaded on 06/08/2009 for the course HIST 4C taught by Professor Dawson during the Fall '07 term at UCSB.

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History 4C ESSAYS from ANDY - 14:46:00 Essay Section I...

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