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glossaryone - EEMB40: Ecology of Disease Glossary Acute...

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EEMB40: Ecology of Disease – Glossary Acute disease An acute disease is a disease with either a rapid onset or a short duration, or both. Acute is NOT synonymous with ‘severe’. Cf. Chronic AIDS (Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) An infectious disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Transmission occurs via one of three routes: vertical transmission, transmission via body fluids (eg sharing needles) or via sexual transmission. Amplification Adding a species to a community increases the total abundance of hosts for a pathogen, increasing the disease risk to the target host. Antibiotic A chemical substance that kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics are designed to be taken to cure disease. Antibiotic Resistance The ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. Antibody Proteins that are found in blood of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. Antigen A molecule that can stimulate an immune response. Antigen drift The random accumulation of mutations in viral genes recognized by the immune system. Such accumulation may significantly change the antigens of the virus, and may help it evade the immune system.
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Antigen shift Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Antiviral A chemical substance that kills or suppresses the growth of viruses. Antivirals are designed to be taken to cure or control disease. Asymptomatic Individuals who are infected by a disease but do not show any of the typical symptoms. Attenuated Reducing the virulence of an organism, usually a virus, whilst keeping it viable. BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis . Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis A chytrid fungus and the causative agent of Chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Beta ( β ) Infection rate in the SIR model beta-lactam antibiotics A broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin and its derivatives. They are the most widely used group of antibiotics available. Black Death (1347-1351) One of the most deadly pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by Bubonic Plague. Bolivian hemorrhagic fever A zoonotic infectious disease of man caused by a virus and transmitted to man via rodents. Borrelia burgdorferi The bacterial causative agent of Lyme disease.
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) An infectious disease that affects the brain and nervous system in cows. The infectious agent in BSE is believed to be a specific type of misfolded protein called a prion. Broad Street Outbreak (1854)
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2009 for the course EEMB 40 taught by Professor Latto during the Summer '08 term at UCSB.

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glossaryone - EEMB40: Ecology of Disease Glossary Acute...

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