Ch1 - Assignments McMurry, Ch. 1 Problems 18, 20, 24, 25,...

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Page ‹#› 1 CHEM 10172 ELEMENTARY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY McMurry Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding 2 Assignments McMurry, Ch. 1 Problems 18, 20, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 46, 49, 51, 53, 55 Answers are in the Study Guide and Solutions Manual. 3 What is organic chemistry? 4 In very large part, “Organic chemistry is biology” and “Biology is organic chemistry.” Especially true today in modern felds such as • Molecular biology • Cell biology • Molecular genetics • Bioengineering 5 But organic chemistry is more than that Other examples: Textiles, paints, dyes (Tyrian Purple), pharmaceuticals, synthetic materials (Kevlar), catalysts, plastics, pesticides, herbicides, electronics, etc. Carbon Tower: Skyscrapers without steel. Carbon fbers several times stronger than steel will allow construction oF entirely open interiors For buildings Polymer skin: Breathable electrospun Fabrics as bandage 6 Origins oF organic chemistry: scientists studying biological systems. constituents oF living systems were called “organic”. basis oF “vitalism”.
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Page ‹#› 7 Louis Pasteur (France, 1822-1895) developed “germ theory”for diseases but also demonstrated ±rst separation of enantiomers of organic compounds studied “optical activity” of organic compounds 8 Friedrich Wöhler (Germany, 1800-1882) • laboratory synthesis of urea from an inorganic salt • evidence against “vitalism” 9 Today, we know that • molecules in living cells are mainly “organic compounds” • life processes are “organic reactions” Current state of modern biology and medicine • no longer based upon only on macroscopic or even microscopic observations • focused increasingly on the molecular level , i.e. structures and reactions of “organic compounds” 10 Review of Chemical Structure and Bonding 11 Most fundamental principle of chemical bonding: • opposite charges attract • like charges repel Over 90% of chemical reactions involve charged or “polarized” (partially charged) species. • learn to recognize charged or polarized species • based largely upon electronegativity differences • recall electronegativity trends in the periodic table 12
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Page ‹#› 13 1 2 3 - 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 H 1 H 2 He 3 Li 4 Be 5 B 6 C 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne 11 Na 12 Mg 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 19 K 20 Ca 21 - 30 Sc - Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 - 48 Y - Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54 Xe Atomic numbers ( in red ) • indicate total no. of protons in nucleus • indicate total no. of electrons in neutral atom • but outer-shell electrons determine “chemistry” • inner-shell electrons are “shielded”; “unreactive” 14 1 2 3 - 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 H 1 H 2 He 3 Li 4 Be 5 B 6 C 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne 11 Na 12 Mg 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 19 K 20 Ca 21 - 30 Sc - Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 - 48 Y - Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2009 for the course ORGANIC CH 12402 taught by Professor White during the Spring '09 term at American University of Kuwait.

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Ch1 - Assignments McMurry, Ch. 1 Problems 18, 20, 24, 25,...

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