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OCB Performance - Academy of Management Journal 2007 Vol 50...

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HIGH-PERFORMANCE HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES, CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A RELATIONAL PERSPECTIVE LI-YUN SUN Macau University of Science and Technology SAMUEL ARYEE Aston University KENNETH S. LAW The Chinese University of Hong Kong Taking a relational perspective on the employment relationship, we examined pro- cesses (mediation and moderation) linking high-performance human resource prac- tices and productivity and turnover, two indicators of organizational performance. Multilevel analysis of data from hotels in the People’s Republic of China revealed that service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) partially mediated the relationships between high-performance human resource practices and both perfor- mance indicators. Unemployment rate moderated the service-oriented OCB–turnover relationship, and business strategy (service quality) moderated the service-oriented OCB–productivity relationship. Over the past decade or so the human resource management function has come under pressure to demonstrate its contribution to organizational per- formance (Stewart, 1996). Consequently, research in strategic human resource management has exam- ined the influence on organizational performance of high-performance human resource practices, which are coherent practices that enhance the skills of the workforce, participation in decision making, and motivation to put forth discretionary effort (Appelbaum, Bailey, Berg, & Kalleberg, 2000: 26) and that ultimately “result in . . . superior inter- mediate indicators of firm performance (i.e., those indicators over which the workforce has direct con- trol) and sustainable competitive advantage” (Way, 2002: 765). Although there is considerable evi- dence that high-performance human resource prac- tices are associated with organizational perfor- mance (Appelbaum et al., 2000; Arthur, 1994; Bae & Lawler, 2000; Bartel, 2004; Batt, 2002; Guthrie, 2001; Huselid, 1995; MacDuffie, 1995; Wright, Gardner, Moynihan, & Allen, 2005), a number of theoretical and methodological limitations have been highlighted in recent reviews of the literature (Batt, 2002; Ferris, Arthur, Berkson, Harrel-Cook, & Fink, 1998). First, little consensus exists among researchers regarding the specific practices to be included in the configuration of high-performance human re- source practices (Becker & Gerhart, 1996; Collins & Smith, 2006; Datta, Guthrie, & Wright, 2005; Delaney & Huselid, 1996; Delery & Shaw, 2001; Ferris et al., 1998). For example, Delaney and Huselid observed that “the relevant literature is distinguished by the fact that virtually no two stud- ies measure HRM practices in the same way . . . . As a result, we see the development of reliable and valid measures of HRM systems to be one of the primary challenges (and opportunities) for . . . ad- vancing this line of research” (1996: 967). Second, in spite of the documented relationship between high-performance human resource practices and or- ganizational performance, the mechanism underly- ing this relationship remains a black box. Ferris and his colleagues noted a dearth of research aim- ing to provide “a systematic explanation of pre-
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