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2025MGT Lecture 8 0802 - Chapter 12 Basic approaches to...

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Chapter 12 Basic approaches to leadership
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2 Lecture Objectives: 1. Contrast leadership and management. 2. Summarise the conclusions of trait theories. 3. Describe Fiedler’s contingency model. 4. Explain Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory. 5. Summarise leader-member exchange theory. 6. Describe the path-goal theory. 7. Identify the situational variables in the leader- participation model. Learning Objectives
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3 What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organisational members
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4 Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders Leadership Traits Extraversion – sociable, assertive, talkative Conscientiousness – responsible, dependable, persistent Openness – imaginative, intelligent Emotional Intelligence – calm, enthusiastic, secure
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5 Behavioural Theories Behavioural Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non-leaders Behavioural Theory Leadership behaviours can be taught. vs. Trait Theory Leaders are born, not made.
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6 Behavioural Approach Ohio State Studies The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioural theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State University in the late 1940s. These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behaviour. Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment The leader high in initiating structure could be described as someone who “assigns group members to particular tasks,” “expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance,” and “emphasises the meeting of deadlines.”
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7 Behavioural Approach Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterised by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for his/her feelings The leader shows concern for followers’ comfort, well- being, status, and satisfaction. A leader high in consideration could be described as one who helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all employees as equals.
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8 University of Michigan Studies Employee-oriented Leader Emphasising interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members Production-oriented Leader One who emphasises technical or task aspects of the job Michigan researchers’ conclusions strongly favoured the leaders who were employee oriented. Employee-oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction.
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