lec19 - OBESITY DIABETES and METABOLISM lood glucose: eld...

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OBESITY DIABETES and METABOLISM
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blood glucose: held tightly at 5 mM by hook or crook fig 23-25 for glucose mg/dl = 18 x mM
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hormonal control of blood glucose
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Endocrine control: a hierarchy fig 23-8
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Endocrine control: a hierarchy
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fig 23-27
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DIABETES MELLITUS a state in which carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is improperly regulated by insulin TYPE I : patients are completely insulin dependent 5-10 % of cases TYPE II : defect in insulin action and secretion remaining cases frequently called NIDDM : non insulin-dep. diabetes mellitus
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over 140 million cases world wide will double by 2030 (!) strong genetic links but alarming incidence increase alarming incidence increase indicates strong env. factors indicates strong env. factors DIABETES MELLITUS
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diabetes transgenic models: tissue specific receptor KO muscle liver adipose β -cells brain no disease! overt diabetes overt diabetes imparied ins. secretion incresed food intake obesity, systemic insulin resistance (?)
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New drugs for an old diseases: allosteric intervention liver specific form Joseph Grippo Grimsby et al. (2003) Science 301:370-3.
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New drugs for an old diseases: allosteric intervention Idea: Can a drug be developed that allosterically activates liver-specific hexokinase (aka glucokinase)?
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R0-28-1675: a synthetic glucokinase activator QuickTimeª and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Glucokinase activator works in vivo, orally QuickTimeª and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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obesity diabetes a poorly understood interplay between obesity and diabetes
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Prevalence of Obesity among  Prevalence of Obesity among  U.S. Adults, BRFSS, 1985 U.S. Adults, BRFSS, 1985         <10% <10%  10-15%  10-15% >15%
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         <10% <10%    10-15%    10-15% >15% Prevalence of Obesity among  Prevalence of Obesity among  U.S. Adults, BRFSS, 1998 U.S. Adults, BRFSS, 1998
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trends in obesity worldwide
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The BMI: body mass index http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/calc-bmi.htm A crude but easy-to-calculate indicator of body mass that is a useful indicator of obesity in populations 2 In kg/mt 2 BMI calculator:
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Women: RR is 18.1 for BMI
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lec19 - OBESITY DIABETES and METABOLISM lood glucose: eld...

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