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Unformatted text preview: FERMENTATION INDUSTRIES if»; Bwfinghiocthanol. novel mandfermentationpmdim) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES FOODICHEMICAL (cg. Bimunediatiom um utilization. crop protection. biosorptioo ol' trusts) BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOMEDICAL HEALTH-CARE RESEARCH INDUSTRIES (c 3. Cancer. AIDS. drug metabolism (cg, Phamaoouucfl vaccines. genoioadciryscrecns. human genetic probmcs.‘ ' hormones. blond djmrdus) factors} FUNDAMENTAL BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH B uddin g yeast (so Coll biology, mm biochemistry, molecular biology} Saccharamyces cerevisiae Figure 1.1. Diversity of cutlets involving yeast biotechnology. Table 1.5, Some contributions of yeasts to biological science. Discipline Contributions Biochemistry Elucidation of glycolvsis. Nature and function at enzymes involved in respiration. latty acid metabolism, proteolysis etc. Signal transduction mechanisms leg. the roles of cAMP. incsitol phosphates and protein kinasesl. Cytt'ilngiir Mechanisms of mitosis and meiosis. Biogenesis of organelles (e.g. mitochondria. vacuoles. peroxisornes). Cytoskeletal structure and function. Elucidation of protein secretory pathways. Genetics and molecular biology Mating type switching phenomena. Nucleic acid and genome structure. Mechanisms of recombination. Control of gene expression. Gene mapping and sequencing. Control of the cell cycle. Functions of oncogenes. Table 6.36. Value ot yeasts in biomedical research. Research lieid Onooiog y o Pharmacology 0 and Toxicology e e O o O o Virology o Genetics 0 Neurodegenerative e fisease Examples of the value of yeast research Molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control at (31—3 and 82401 checkpoints are being determined using budding and fission yeasts. These controls are key to our understanding of cancer cell division. The biochemical regulation of certain human oncogenes (e.g. res} can be studied in S. oerevisiae. p53 gene mutations. which are implicated in tumorigenesis. can be studied using a yeast functional assay. The function of telemere-binding proteins in Sch. pambe are providing insight into how cancer cells maintain a constant average telomere length. S. cerevisriee is useful in studies of apoptotic cell death. Yeasts are used in studies of the genetics and biochemistry oi multidrug resistance. Studies on the mode of drug action (e.g. anti- tumour agents} is feasible in yeast cells. Drug metabolism. drug-drug interactions and pharmacokinetics can be studied in yeasts. Yeasts expressing human P450 are useful in drug assays. Drugs can be screened and mutagens/genomxic agents rapidly tested in 5‘. ceravfsfae or Sch. pomba. Mycotoxins. xenoestrogens. etc. can be assayed using yeasts. Toxic chemicals in pollutant samples can be detected using yeast biosensors. S. cerevisiae contributes to human virology by providing: a virus model [e.g. killer plasmids and retrotransposons}: anti-viral components {surface antigens for vaccines}: system for studying viral protein action: two-hybrid system to study self- interaction of viral proteins. Yeast artificial chromosomes tYACs) are invaluable in cloning human DNA and in mapping the human genome. ' Research into yeast prions is offering new insights into the molecular biology of protein-based inheritance and possible therapies for certain neurodegenerative human diseases (e.g. kuru. Creutzfeld-Jacob. fatal lamilial insomnia). Relerences See Chapter 4 and relerences therein. See Nurse {1985}: Pfeifler {1997) lshioka at al. {1995}: Tada et a1. [1996] Cooper at at {1997} Bemis at at. (1995} Baizi and Gotteau (1 994]: Shallom and Golin {1996): Gofleau at at {1997] Delitheos or at. {1995}: Popolo at al. {1996} Friedberg and Wolf {1996} Pompon at all. (1995} Wiseman {1987}: McAthey { 1996): Stalava et at. (1996] Routledge and Sumpter {1996k Medhyastha er of. {1994) Camponella et at. {1995} Ward and Macreadie t 1 996) Resnick or at. (1995): Markie { 1 996} Lindquist (1996) ...
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