Congress & the President.pptx - Congress the President Ryan Izquierdo POL\/115 Dina Krois 1 Structure and makeup of Congress Article I of the

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Unformatted text preview: Congress & the President Ryan Izquierdo POL/115 Dina Krois 01/28/2019 1 Structure and makeup of Congress Article I of the Constitution describes the legislative branch, called Congress After hashing out the terms of the Great Compromise, the framers created a Bicameral legislature The lower chamber is called the House of Representatives and an upper chamber called the Senate (SparkNotes LLC, 2019) 2 The House of Representatives The House of Representatives is meant to be “The People’s House,” or the part of government most responsive to public opinion Each state’s representation in the House is based on population, with each state getting at least one member A person must be twenty-five years old and a resident of the state he or she represents in order to run for a seat in the House (SparkNotes LLC, 2019) 3 The Senate Senate as a body of statesmen who make decisions based on experience and wisdom, not on the unpredictable whims of the people As a check on excessive democracy, only one-third of the Senate is elected every two years Senate and House must pass identical versions of a Bill, the Senate can check any democratic excesses in the House The Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, gave the people the power to elect their senators directly (SparkNotes LLC, 2019) 4 Differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate House of Representatives House members face reelection every two years, and the entire body is elected at the same time House members are determined by the population of the state, 435 total Initiates all revenue bills Initiates impeachment procedures and passes articles of impeachment Senate Each state has two senators. Senators serve six-year terms No matter the population each state has the same amount of Senators which is two, 100 total Must confirm many major presidential appointments Tries impeachment officials Approves treaties 5 Powers granted to Congress under the Constitution The Constitution specifically grants Congress its most important power, the authority to make laws A bill, or proposed law, only becomes a law after both the House of Representatives and the Senate have approved it in the same form Included in these include the power to declare war, coin money, raise an army and navy, regulate commerce, establish rules of immigration and naturalization, and establish the federal courts and their jurisdictions. (Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, 2019) 6 House of Congress special exclusive powers House of Representatives Senate Revenue Bills must originate in the House of Representatives. Major presidential appointments must be confirmed by the Senate Impeachment power, the authority to charge the President and other "civil officers" with wrongdoing, is given to the House. A simple majority vote can impeach an elected official. Treaties with other nations entered into by the President must be approved by a two-thirds vote by the Senate An Impeachment trail occurs in the Senate. If the House votes to impeach an elected official, the accused party gets a hearing in the Senate 7 Powers granted to the President under the Constitution Serve as commander in chief of the armed forces Commission officers of the armed forces Grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses (except impeachment) Convene Congress in special sessions Receive ambassadors Take care that the laws be faithfully executed Wield the “Executive Power" Appoint officials to lesser offices (Vote Smart, 2019) 8 Powers shared by the President and Congress o Shared with Congress as a whole Approve legislation o Shared with only the Senate Make treaties Appoint ambassadors, judges, and high officials (Vote Smart, 2019) 9 Three branches of Government Executive (President) Legislative (Congress) Judicial (Supreme Court) 10 Checks and Balances (Executive) The executive branch, through the Federal agencies, has responsibility for day-to-day enforcement and administration of Federal laws. These Federal departments and agencies have missions and responsibilities that vary widely, from environmental protection to protecting the Nation’s borders. The President in the executive branch can veto a law, but the legislative branch can override that veto with enough votes. The executive branch can declare Executive Orders, which are like proclamations that carry the force of law, but the judicial branch can declare those acts unconstitutional (Government Publishing Office, 2019) 11 Checks and Balances (Legislative) The legislative branch makes laws, but the President in the executive branch can veto those laws with a Presidential Veto. The legislative branch makes laws, but the judicial branch can declare those laws unconstitutional. The legislative branch has the power to approve Presidential nominations, control the budget, and can impeach the President and remove him or her from office (Government Publishing Office, 2019) 12 Checks and Balances (Judicial) The judicial branch interprets laws, but the President nominates Supreme Court justices, court of appeals judges, and district court judges who make the evaluations. The judicial branch interprets laws, but the Senate in the legislative branch confirms the President’s nominations for judicial positions, and Congress can impeach any of those judges and remove them from office. (Government Publishing Office, 2019) 13 Qualifications of Presidency Article II of the Constitution defines the qualifications, benefits, and powers of the presidency The President must be at least 35 years old, and must have resided in the United States for no fewer than 14 years Presidents must be "Natural Born" citizen ( U.S.history.org, 2019) 14 The Evolution of the Presidency The 21st Century dawned on a very different presidency than the one created at the end of the 1700s Constitutional provisions limited the early presidency, although the personalities of the first three — George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson — shaped it into a more influential position by the early 1800s Throughout the 1800s until the 1930s, Congress was the dominant branch of the national government. Then, throughout the rest of the 20th Century, the balance of power shifted dramatically The Constitution assigned the following powers to the President: Military, Diplomatic, Appointment and Legislative ( U.S.history.org, 2019) 15 The Strengthening of the Presidency ANDREW JACKSON, greatly loved by the masses, used his image and personal power to strengthen the developing party system by rewarding loyal followers with presidential appointments. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, suspended HABEAS CORPUS (the right to an appearance in court), and jailed people suspected of disloyalty. He ignored Congress by expanding the size of the army and ordering blockades of southern ports without the consent of Congress RANKLIN ROOSEVELT, who was elected four times to the presidency, led the nation through the crises of the GREAT DEPRESSION and WORLD WAR II ( U.S.history.org, 2019) 16 How bills become laws 17 Key Terms Great Compromise- The Great Compromise (also called the Connecticut Compromise or Sherman's Compromise, was worked out in the Constitutional Convention in 1789. The Compromise settled the debate over legislative representation between proponents of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans. Bicameral- A bicameral government is one in which there are two branches, chambers, or houses, such as the United States Congress which is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Passing legislation requires the consent of both houses. House of Representatives- The House of Representatives, often referred to as just "The House," is the lower chamber of Congress in which representatives of each state in the union gather Senate- is the upper house of the United States Congress, the lower house being the United States House of Representatives 18 Key Terms continued The People’s House- Legislatures. United States House of Representatives, is called "the People's House", colloquially. United States Capitol building, where Congress meets, is called "the People's House Bill- is the principal vehicle employed by lawmakers for introducing their proposals Revenue Bills- A revenue bill focuses on methods for raising money, e.g. taxes, user fees, customs duties, and tariffs. Under the U.S. Constitution, federal revenue bills are required to be initiated in the House of Representatives Impeachment trail- The Senate becomes jury and judge, except in the case of presidential impeachment trials when the chief justice of the United States presides. The Constitution requires a two-thirds vote of the Senate to convict, and the penalty for an impeached official is removal from office Executive Power- Article II of the Constitution establishes the Executive branch of the federal government. It defines the office of President and Vice President, and an Electoral College to elect them 19 References SparkNotes LLC. (2019). The Structure of Congress. Retrieved from Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia. (2019). The Powers of Congress. Retrieved from Vote Smart. (2019). Government 101: President of the United States. Retrieved from Government Publishing Office. (2019). Checks and Balances. Retrieved from 20 References continued U.S.history.org. (2019). The Evolution of the Presidency. Retrieved from Lowenthal, A. (2019). How A Bill Becomes A Law. Retrieved from Conservapedia. (2019). Search results. Retrieved from 21 ...
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  • Fall '15
  • President of the United States, United States Congress, United States Senate, United States House of Representatives

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