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exam review sports Soc:participations rates, know the numbersadams, scepticismlisa on ice, how it relates to gender roleslove and frye on masculinity4 types of crowd violencehooliganism, know the chart and the numbersmodernisation dépendance and world systems theories, all 3rational action in sport, weberWeek 7 (Gender & Sexuality)•Differences between social constructionism and biological determinism (gendercontext)Biological determinists tend to think inequality is the result of biology. The belief is thatsince the differences are innate and natural, why bother to fight for a more equitablesociety The trouble is that despite all the scientific (both physical and social) evidence tothe contrary, these ideas are still pretty common and are used to justify and maintainpositions of wealth, status and power, both individually and collectively and out of a fear ofchanges to the current dominant order that makes up our social structure - human socialbehaviour is a product pf human biology.Social constructionism - a critique of biological determinism. Used as a method to explainthe tremendous cross-cultural and historical variations of masculine and femininebehaviour. if gendered behaviours were determined by biology they would look the sameeverywhere.•Sport institutions in North AmericaWhen modern sporting institutions were developed in Europe and NorthAmerica in the 19thcentury, they were designed by and for men as devices toprepare young men for the station determined by their class•Coverage for Women’s sportCoverage of women’s sport has declined in the past twenty yearsA report tracking the coverage of women’s sport on the ESPN highlightsshowSportsCenterdemonstrates that women’s sport now accounts for 1.3%to 1.6% of the show’s total contentSports reporters routinely mention women’s appearances and their romanticand family lives as a means of imposing a heteronormative frame overnarrativesThe fear of appearing too masculine or as a lesbian has kept many womenfrom choosing sports traditionally defined as male
•Participation rates for non-elite athletesDespite increases in the participation of women and girls, men still participate in sport attwice the rate of womenA Statistics Canada survey (2010) shows that only 35% of men and 16% of womenparticipate regularly in sportWomen’s declining participation in sport activities may be related to variousdevelopments such as less time, domestic division of work, and other fitness activitiessuch as walking and yoga•Adams & Leavitt on being sceptical of growth in women’s hockey (article)they examine the structural inequalities of gender and relations of powerto consider whether and how historically-entrenched inequalities are being challenged,eradicated and/or maintained in girls’ minor hockey in an area of Canada with relativelylow participation numbers.