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Chapter 14 Brain and Cranial Nerves.rtf - 1 Chapter 14...

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Chapter 14 –Brain and the Cranial NervesStudent Learning Outcomes:Use anatomical terminology to identify and describe locations of major organs ofthe central nervous system.Explain interrelationships among cellular, tissue, and organ functions in thenervous system.Describe the interdependency and interactions of the nervous system.Explain contributions of organs and systems to the maintenance of homeostasis.Identify causes and effects of homeostatic imbalances.Thebrainis a mass of nervous tissue located in the cranial cavity.It is responsible forintegrating and processing sensory and motor information. It weighs about 1300 g or 1200 mL,with males having a brain that is 10% larger than females.However, there is no correlationbetween brain size and intelligence.The brain is divided into 4 principal parts (Fig 14-1, p 467).I.Cerebrumhas 2 hemispheres that make up the forebrainII. Cerebellumis the second largest part of the brain. It is partially hidden by the cerebralhemispheres. The gray matter is called thecerebellar cortex. The cerebellum is concernedwith coordination of movementsIII.Diencephalonis composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus. It is the structural andfunctional link between the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem.IV. Brainstemis composed of medulla oblongata, pons, and mesencephalon or midbrain.Itcontains a variety of processing centers.Ventricles of the Brain(Fig 14-2 a & b, p 469)Ventriclesare cavities in the brain that connect with each other, with the central canal in thespinal cord and with the subarachnoid space.They are lined with ependymal cells.1.Lateral ventricles- there are 2 of them located in each hemisphere beneath thecorpus callosum.The lateral ventricles are separated bysepta pellucida.2.Third ventricle- a vertical slit, inferior to the right and left halves of thethalamus and between the lateral ventricles.Theinterventricular foramenis an ovalopening between the lateral and the third ventricles.3.Fourth ventricleis between the inferior brain stem and the cerebellum.Cerebral aqueductpasses through the midbrain and connects the third and fourthventricles.The fourth ventricle communicates with the subarachnoid space of the brainand spinal cord and by themedian apertureandtwo lateral apertures.Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)is produced in the ventricles (Fig 14-4, p 472). It circulatesthrough the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord; and through the ventricles ofthe brain.The ependymal cells and blood vessels that make up thechoroids plexusproduce thecerebrospinal fluid.The endothelial cells in the blood vessels are joined by tight junctions toastrocytes in the brain to form the blood-brain barrier, or more correctly, theblood-CFS barrier.

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