Tortora - Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body.ppt

Tortora - Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body.ppt...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-1Chapter 1An Introduction to the Human BodyAnatomyscience of structurerelationships revealed by dissection (cutting apart)imaging techniquesPhysiologyscience of body functionsnormal adult physiology studied in this textsome genetic variations describedSubdivisions of A & P = Table 1.11-2Clinical Observational TechniquesPalpationfeel body surface with handspulses and breathing ratesAuscultationlisten to body sounds with stethoscopeabnormal fluid in lungsPercussiontap on body surface and listen to echoair in intestines1-3Levels of OrganizationChemicalCellularTissueOrgansSystem LevelOrganismic Level1-4Levels of Structural OrganizationChemical Levelatomic and molecular levelCellular levelsmallest living unit of the bodyTissue levelgroup of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together on one task4 basic tissue typesepithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nerve1-5Levels of Structural OrganizationOrgan levelgrouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizable structure with a specific function.Organ systemcollection of related organs with a common functionsometimes an organ is part of more than one systemOrganismic levelone living individual.1-6Interaction of Organ SystemsAll major body systems will be examinedInteraction of different systems of the bodyskin produces vitamin D needed for calcium absorption and bone growthbone marrow produces cells which help the skin resist infection.1-7Life ProcessesMetabolism = sum of all chemical processesbreakdown of large molecules into small building new structural components (proteins)providing chemical energy for cellsResponsivenessdetect & respond to changes in internal or external environmentsome typical responses muscle contraction, electrical signals, hormone or glandular secretion1-8Life ProcessesMovement at any structural levelthe body, an organ, a cell or cell componentGrowthincrease in number or size of cells or the material found between cellsDifferentiationspecialization of cells for a specific functionstem cells give rise to cells that specializeReproductionformation of new cells or new individuals1-9AutopsyPostmortem examination of body by dissectionPurposeconfirm or determine cause of deathsupport findings of other testsprovide information on effects of drug usageeducate healthcare studentsreveal congenital defects1-10HomeostasisMaintaining the internal environment within physiological limits First described by French physiologist, 1813-1878Process named by Walter Cannon, 1871-1945Exampleblood glucose level is kept within narrow range 70-110/100ml1-11The First Secret of Life!1-12Homeostasis of Body Fluids...
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Tortora - Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body.ppt...

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