Tortora - Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body.ppt

Tortora - Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body.ppt...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-1Chapter 1An Introduction to the Human Body•Anatomy–science of structure–relationships revealed by dissection (cutting apart)–imaging techniques•Physiology–science of body functions–normal adult physiology studied in this text–some genetic variations described•Subdivisions of A & P = Table 1.11-2Clinical Observational Techniques•Palpation–feel body surface with hands•pulses and breathing rates•Auscultation–listen to body sounds with stethoscope•abnormal fluid in lungs•Percussion–tap on body surface and listen to echo•air in intestines1-3Levels of Organization•Chemical•Cellular•Tissue•Organs•System Level•Organismic Level1-4Levels of Structural Organization•Chemical Level–atomic and molecular level•Cellular level–smallest living unit of the body•Tissue level–group of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together on one task–4 basic tissue types•epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nerve1-5Levels of Structural Organization•Organ level–grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizable structure with a specific function.•Organ system–collection of related organs with a common function–sometimes an organ is part of more than one system•Organismic level–one living individual.1-6Interaction of Organ Systems•All major body systems will be examined•Interaction of different systems of the body–skin produces vitamin D needed for calcium absorption and bone growth–bone marrow produces cells which help the skin resist infection.1-7Life Processes•Metabolism = sum of all chemical processes–breakdown of large molecules into small –building new structural components (proteins)–providing chemical energy for cells•Responsiveness–detect & respond to changes in internal or external environment–some typical responses •muscle contraction, electrical signals, hormone or glandular secretion1-8Life Processes•Movement at any structural level–the body, an organ, a cell or cell component•Growth–increase in number or size of cells or the material found between cells•Differentiation–specialization of cells for a specific function–stem cells give rise to cells that specialize•Reproduction–formation of new cells or new individuals1-9Autopsy•Postmortem examination of body by dissection•Purpose–confirm or determine cause of death–support findings of other tests–provide information on effects of drug usage–educate healthcare students–reveal congenital defects1-10Homeostasis•Maintaining the internal environment within physiological limits •First described by French physiologist, 1813-1878•Process named by Walter Cannon, 1871-1945•Example–blood glucose level is kept within narrow range 70-110/100ml1-11The First Secret of Life!1-12Homeostasis of Body Fluids...
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2009 for the course BIOL 251 taught by Professor Hurrell during the Spring '09 term at Delgado CC.

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Tortora - Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body.ppt...

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