LEARNING - LEARNING Outline Theories of Learning Classical...

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LEARNING Outline Theories of Learning Classical conditioning Applying classical conditioning to every day life Operant conditioning Cognitive – Social learning Learning is the most commonly used word. In common language learning means it is a skill, e.g. language, music, reading etc. In Psychology, the definition of Learning is much broader. In Psychology, any change of behavior or mental process , which is relatively permanent and which occurs as a result of practice or experience is known as learning process. Although learning is a permanent change of behavior, it can be unlearned or suppressed. The word learning is utilized in any branch of Psychology A developmental Psychologist uses the learning concept in terms of Language, motor development. The clinical Psychologist utilizes the word to study how previous learning affects present behavior. Social Psychologist utilizes learning concept to study attitudes,
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prejudice, and social behavior. Theories of learning There are different types of theories which explain the learning process. The textbook covers the most basic forms of learning called conditioning. Conditioning: It is a form of learning process in which a connection is acquired between a stimulus and a response. This chapter focuses on 3 types of learning theories. 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning 3. Cognitive-social learning Classical conditioning The scientist who formulated this theory is Ivan Pavlov, a Russian Physiologist (1849-1936). He accidentally discovered this theory while conducting experiments on a dog to measure saliva secretion in digestive process. He attached a device to dog’s salivary glands to collect saliva and measure the output. The dog started to secret saliva at the sight of food, which is a normal reflex response. An innate, biological process. As the experiment continued, the experimenter discovered that the dog started to salivate to non food objects, e.g. sight of the food plate, smell of the food. The normal reflex which was connected to food became connected to substitute object which is not normal. The term conditioning indicates this process of
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LEARNING - LEARNING Outline Theories of Learning Classical...

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