Tortora - Chapter 5 - The Integumentary System

Tortora - Chapter 5 - The Integumentary System - 5-1Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: 5-1Chapter 5The Integumentary SystemSkin and its accessory structuresstructurefunctiongrowth and repairdevelopmentagingdisorders5-2General AnatomyA large organ composed of all 4 tissue types22 square feet 1-2 mm thickWeight 10 lbs.5-3Overview2 Major layers of skinepidermis is epithelial tissue onlydermis is layer of connective tissue, nerve & muscleSubcutaneous tissue (subQ or hypodermis) is layer of adipose & areolar tissuesubQ = subcutaneous injectionintradermal = within the skin layer5-4Overview of EpidermisStratified squamous epitheliumContains no blood vessels4 types of cells5 distinct strata (layers) of cells5-5Cell types of the EpidermisKeratinocytes--90%produce keratinMelanocytes-----8 %produces melanin pigmentmelanin transferred to other cells with long cell processesLangerhan cellsfrom bone marrowprovide immunityMerkel cellsin deepest layerform touch receptor with sensory neuron5-6Layers (Strata) of the EpidermisStratum corneumStratum lucidumStratum granulosumStratum spinosumStratum basale5-7Stratum BasaleDeepest single layer of cells Called stratum germinativumCombination of merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes & stem cells that divide repeatedlyCells attached to each other & to basement membrane by desmosomes & hemidesmosomes5-8Stratum Spinosum8 to 10 cell layers held together by desmosomesDuring slide preparation, cells shrink and look spinyMelanin taken in by phagocytosis from nearby melanocytes5-9Stratum Granulosum3 - 5 layers of flat dying cellsShow nuclear degenerationContain dark-staining keratohyalin granulesContain lamellar granules that release lipid that repels water5-10Stratum LucidumSeen in thick skin on palms & soles of feetThree to five layers of clear, flat, dead cellsContains precursor of keratin5-11Stratum Corneum25 to 30 layers of flat dead cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipidsContinuously shedBarrier to light, heat, water, chemicals & bacteriaFriction stimulates callus formation5-12Keratinization & Epidermal GrowthStem cells divide to produce keratinocytesAs keratinocytes are pushed up towards the surface, they fill with keratin4 week journey unless outer layers removed in abrasionHormone EGF (epidermal growth factor) can speed up processPsoriasis = chronic skin disordercells shed in 7 to 10 days as flaky silvery scalesabnormal keratin produced5-13Skin GraftsNew skin can not regenerate if stratum basale and its stem cells are destroyedSkin graft is covering of wound with piece of healthy skinautograft from selfisograft from twinautologous skintransplantation of patients skin grown in culture5-14DermisConnective tissue layer composed of collagen & elastic fibers, fibroblasts, macrophages & fat cellsContains hair follicles, glands, nerves & blood vesselsMajor regions of dermispapillary regionreticular region5-15...
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Tortora - Chapter 5 - The Integumentary System - 5-1Chapter...

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