Tortora - Chapter 6 - The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue(2)

Tortora - Chapter 6 - The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue(2)...

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Unformatted text preview: 6-1Chapter 6The Skeletal System:Bone TissueDynamic and ever-changing throughout lifeSkeleton composed of many different tissuescartilage, bone tissue, epithelium, nerve, blood forming tissue, adipose, and dense connective tissue6-2Functions of BoneSupporting & protecting soft tissuesAttachment site for muscles making movement possibleStorage of the minerals, calcium & phosphate -- mineral homeostasis Blood cell production occurs in red bone marrow (hemopoiesis)Energy storage in yellow bone marrow6-3Anatomy of a Long BoneDiaphysis = shaftEpiphysis = one end of a long boneMetaphysis = growth plate regionArticular cartilage over joint surfaces acts as friction & shock absorberMedullary cavity = marrow cavityEndosteum = lining of marrow cavityPeriosteum = tough membrane covering bone but not the cartilage fibrous layer = dense irregular CTosteogenic layer = bone cells & blood vessels that nourish or help with repairs6-4Histology of BoneA type of connective tissue as seen by widely spaced cells separated by matrixMatrix of 25% water, 25% collagen fibers & 50% crystalized mineral salts4 types of cells in bone tissue6-5Cell Types of BoneOsteoprogenitor cells ---- undifferentiated cells can divide to replace themselves & can become osteoblastsfound in inner layer of periosteum and endosteumOsteoblasts--form matrix & collagen fibers but cant divideOsteocytes ---mature cells that no longer secrete matrixOsteoclasts---- huge cells from fused monocytes (WBC)function in bone resorption at surfaces such as endosteum6-6Matrix of BoneInorganic mineral salts provide bones hardnesshydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) & calcium carbonateOrganic collagen fibers provide bones flexibilitytheir tensile strength resists being stretched or tornremove minerals with acid & rubbery structure resultsMineralization (calcification) is hardening of tissue when mineral crystals deposit around collagen fibersBone is not completely solid since it has small spaces for vessels and red bone marrowspongy bone has many such spacescompact bone has very few6-7Compact or Dense BoneLooks like solid hard layer of boneMakes up the shaft of long bones and the external layer of all bones Resists stresses produced by weight and movement6-8Histology of Compact BoneOsteon is concentric rings (lamellae) of calcified matrix surrounding a vertically oriented blood vessel Osteocytes found in spaces called lacunaeOsteocytes communicate through canaliculi filled with extracellular fluid that connect one cell to the next cellInterstitial lamellae represent older osteons that have been partially removed during tissue remodeling6-96-10The Trabeculae of Spongy Bone Latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae oriented along lines of stressSpaces in between these struts are filled with red marrow where blood cells developFound in ends of long bones and inside flat bones such as the hipbones, sternum, sides of skull, and ribs....
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2009 for the course BIOL 251 taught by Professor Hurrell during the Spring '09 term at Delgado CC.

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Tortora - Chapter 6 - The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue(2)...

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