Tortora - Chapter 12 - Nervous Tissue

Tortora - Chapter 12 - Nervous Tissue - 12-1Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: 12-1Chapter 12Nervous TissueControls and integrates all body activities within limits that maintain lifeThree basic functionssensing changes with sensory receptorsfullness of stomach or sun on your faceinterpreting and remembering those changesreacting to those changes with effectorsmuscular contractionsglandular secretions12-2Major Structures of the Nervous SystemBrain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors12-3Organization of the Nervous SystemCNS is brain and spinal cordPNS is everything else12-4Nervous System DivisionsCentral nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cordPeripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of cranial and spinal nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibersconnects CNS to muscles, glands & all sensory receptors12-5Subdivisions of the PNSSomatic (voluntary) nervous system (SNS)neurons from cutaneous and special sensory receptors to the CNSmotor neurons to skeletal muscle tissueAutonomic (involuntary) nervous systemssensory neurons from visceral organs to CNSmotor neurons to smooth & cardiac muscle and glandssympathetic division (speeds up heart rate)parasympathetic division (slow down heart rate)Enteric nervous system (ENS)involuntary sensory & motor neurons control GI tractneurons function independently of ANS & CNS12-6NeuronsFunctional unit of nervous systemHave capacity to produce action potentialselectrical excitabilityCell bodysingle nucleus with prominent nucleolusNissl bodies (chromatophilic substance) rough ER & free ribosomes for protein synthesisneurofilaments give cell shape and supportmicrotubules move material inside celllipofuscin pigment clumps (harmless aging)Cell processes = dendrites & axons12-7Nucleus with NucleolusParts of a NeuronAxons or DendritesCell bodyNeuroglial cells12-8DendritesConducts impulses towards the cell bodyTypically short, highly branched & unmyelinatedSurfaces specialized for contact with other neuronsContains neurofibrils & Nissl bodies12-9AxonsConduct impulses away from cell bodyLong, thin cylindrical process of cell Arises at axon hillock Impulses arise from initial segment (trigger zone)Side branches (collaterals) end in fine processes called axon terminalsSwollen tips called synaptic end bulbs contain vesicles filled with neurotransmittersSynaptic boutons12-10Axonal TransportCell body is location for most protein synthesisneurotransmitters & repair proteins Axonal transport system moves substances slow axonal flowmovement in one direction only -- away from cell body...
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2009 for the course BIOL 251 taught by Professor Hurrell during the Spring '09 term at Delgado CC.

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Tortora - Chapter 12 - Nervous Tissue - 12-1Chapter...

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