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Tortora - Chapter 12 - Nervous Tissue

Tortora - Chapter 12 - Nervous Tissue - Chapter 12 Nervous...

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12-1 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Controls and integrates all body activities  within limits that maintain life Three basic functions sensing changes with sensory receptors fullness of stomach or sun on your face interpreting and remembering those changes reacting to those changes with effectors muscular contractions glandular secretions
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12-2 Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves,  ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors
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12-3 Organization of the Nervous System CNS is brain and spinal cord PNS is everything else
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12-4 Nervous System Divisions Central nervous system (CNS)  consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  consists of cranial and spinal nerves that contain both  sensory and motor fibers connects CNS to muscles, glands & all sensory receptors
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12-5 Subdivisions of the PNS Somatic (voluntary) nervous system (SNS) neurons from cutaneous and special sensory receptors to  the CNS motor neurons to skeletal muscle tissue Autonomic (involuntary) nervous systems sensory neurons from visceral organs to CNS motor neurons to smooth & cardiac   muscle and glands sympathetic division (speeds up heart rate) parasympathetic division (slow down heart rate) Enteric nervous system (ENS) involuntary sensory & motor neurons control GI tract neurons function independently of ANS & CNS
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12-6 Neurons Functional unit of nervous system Have capacity to produce action potentials electrical excitability Cell body single nucleus with prominent nucleolus Nissl bodies (chromatophilic substance)  rough ER & free ribosomes for protein synthesis neurofilaments give cell shape and support microtubules move material inside cell lipofuscin pigment clumps (harmless aging) Cell processes = dendrites & axons
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12-7 Nucleus with Nucleolus Parts of a Neuron Axons or Dendrites Cell body Neuroglial cells
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12-8 Dendrites Conducts impulses towards  the cell body Typically short, highly  branched & unmyelinated Surfaces specialized for  contact with other neurons Contains neurofibrils & Nissl  bodies
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12-9 Axons Conduct impulses away from  cell body Long, thin cylindrical process  of cell  Arises at axon hillock  Impulses arise from initial  segment (trigger zone) Side branches (collaterals) end  in fine processes called axon  terminals Swollen tips called synaptic  end bulbs contain vesicles  filled with neurotransmitters Synaptic boutons
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12-10 Axonal Transport Cell body is location for most protein synthesis neurotransmitters & repair proteins 
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