Tortora - Chapter 13 - The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Tortora - Chapter 13 - The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves -...

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Unformatted text preview: 13-1Chapter 13The Spinal Cord & Spinal NervesTogether with brain forms the CNSFunctionsspinal cord reflexesintegration (summation of inhibitory and excitatory) nerve impulseshighway for upward and downward travel of sensory and motor information13-2Spinal Cord ProtectionBy the vertebral column, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and vertebral ligaments.13-3Structures Covering the Spinal CordVertebraeEpidural space filled with fatDura materdense irregular CT tubeSubdural space filled with interstitial fluidArachnoid = spider web of collagen fibersSubarachnoid space = CSFPia materthin layer covers BVdenticulate ligs hold in place13-4External Anatomy of Spinal CordFlattened cylinder16-18 Inches long & 3/4 inch diameterIn adult ends at L2In newborn ends at L4Growth of cord stops at age 5Cervical enlargementupper limbsLumbar enlargementlower limbs13-5Inferior End of Spinal CordConus medullariscone-shaped end of spinal cordFilum terminalethread-like extension of pia materstabilizes spinal cord in canalCaudae equinae (horses tail)dorsal & ventral roots of lowest spinal nervesSpinal segmentarea of cord from which each pair of spinal nerves arises13-6Spinal Cord & Spinal NervesSpinal nerves begin as rootsDorsal or posterior root is incoming sensory fibersdorsal root ganglion (swelling) = cell bodies of sensory nervesVentral or anterior root is outgoing motor fibers13-7Spinal tap or Lumbar PunctureTechniquelong needle into subarachnoid space safe from L3 to L5Purposesampling CSF for diagnosisinjection of antibiotics, anesthetics or chemotherapymeasurement of CSF pressure13-8Gray Matter of the Spinal CordGray matter is shaped like the letter H or a butterflycontains neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated axons & dendritespaired dorsal and ventral gray horns lateral horns only present in thoracic spinal cordgray commissure crosses the midlineCentral canal continuous with 4th ventricle of brainNote: colors in reverse due to staining of tissue13-9White Matter of the Spinal CordWhite matter covers gray matterAnterior median fissure deeper than Posterior median sulcusAnterior, Lateral and Posterior White Columns contain axons that form ascending & descending tracts 13-10Tracts of the Spinal CordFunction of tractshighway for sensory & motor informationsensory tracts ascendmotor tracts descend Naming of tractsindicates position & direction of signal...
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Tortora - Chapter 13 - The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves -...

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