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Tortora - Chapter 13 - The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Tortora - Chapter 13 - The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves -...

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13-1 Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves Together with brain forms the CNS Functions spinal cord reflexes integration (summation of inhibitory and excitatory) nerve impulses highway for upward and downward travel of sensory and motor information
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13-2 Spinal Cord Protection By the vertebral column, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and vertebral ligaments.
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13-3 Structures Covering the Spinal Cord Vertebrae Epidural space filled with fat Dura mater dense irregular CT tube Subdural space filled with interstitial fluid Arachnoid = spider web of collagen fibers Subarachnoid space = CSF Pia mater thin layer covers BV denticulate ligs hold in place
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13-4 External Anatomy of Spinal Cord Flattened cylinder 16-18 Inches long & 3/4 inch diameter In adult ends at L2 In newborn ends at L4 Growth of cord stops at age 5 Cervical enlargement upper limbs Lumbar enlargement lower limbs
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13-5 Inferior End of Spinal Cord Conus medullaris cone-shaped end of spinal cord Filum terminale thread-like extension of pia mater stabilizes spinal cord in canal Caudae equinae (horse’s tail) dorsal & ventral roots of lowest spinal nerves Spinal segment area of cord from which each pair of spinal nerves arises
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13-6 Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves Spinal nerves begin as roots Dorsal or posterior root is incoming sensory fibers dorsal root ganglion (swelling) = cell bodies of sensory nerves Ventral or anterior root is outgoing motor fibers
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13-7 Spinal tap or Lumbar Puncture Technique long needle into subarachnoid space safe from L3 to L5 Purpose sampling CSF for diagnosis injection of antibiotics, anesthetics or chemotherapy measurement of CSF pressure
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13-8 Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord Gray matter is shaped like the letter H or a butterfly contains neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated axons & dendrites paired dorsal and ventral gray horns lateral horns only present in thoracic spinal cord gray commissure crosses the midline Central canal continuous with 4th ventricle of brain Note: colors in reverse due to staining of tissue
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13-9 White Matter of the Spinal Cord White matter covers gray matter Anterior median fissure deeper than Posterior median sulcus Anterior, Lateral and Posterior White Columns contain axons that form ascending & descending tracts
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13-10 Tracts of the Spinal Cord Function of tracts highway for sensory & motor information
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