Tortora - Chapter 15 - The Autonomic Nervous System

Tortora - Chapter 15 - The Autonomic Nervous System -...

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Unformatted text preview: 17-1Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous System•Regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands•Structures involved–general visceral afferent neurons–general visceral efferent neurons–integration center within the brain•Receives input from limbic system and other regions of the cerebrum17-2Autonomic versus Somatic NS•Somatic nervous system–consciously perceived sensations–excitation of skeletal muscle–one neuron connects CNS to organ•Autonomic nervous system–unconsciously perceived visceral sensations –involuntary inhibition or excitation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glandular secretion–two neurons needed to connect CNS to organ•preganglionic and postganglionic neurons17-3Autonomic versus Somatic NS•Notice that the ANS pathway is a 2 neuron pathway while the Somatic NS only contains one neuron.17-4Basic Anatomy of ANS•Preganglionic neuron–cell body in brain or spinal cord –axon is myelinated type B fiber that extends to autonomic ganglion•Postganglionic neuron–cell body lies outside the CNS in an autonomic ganglion–axon is unmyelinated type C fiber that terminates in a visceral effector17-5Divisions of the ANS•2 major divisions–parasympathetic–sympathetic•Dual innervation–one speeds up organ–one slows down organ–Sympathetic NS increases heart rate–Parasympathetic NS decreases heart rate17-6Sources of Dual Innervation•Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division–preganglionic cell bodies in thoracic and first 2 lumbar segments of spinal cord•Parasympathetic (craniosacral) division–preganglionic cell bodies in nuclei of 4 cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord17-7Locations of Autonomic Ganglia•Sympathetic Ganglia–trunk (chain) ganglia near vertebral bodies–prevertebral ganglia near large blood vessel in gut•celiac •superior mesenteric•inferior mesenteric•Parasympathetic Ganglia–terminal ganglia in wall of organ17-8Autonomic Plexuses•Cardiac plexus•Pulmonary plexus•Celiac (solar) plexus•Superior mesenteric•Inferior mesenteric•Hypogastric17-9Structures of Sympathetic NS•Preganglionic cell bodies at...
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Tortora - Chapter 15 - The Autonomic Nervous System -...

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