PSYP319KeyTerms.docx - PSY-P319 Key Terms Chapter 1 Trait-descriptive adjectives \u2013 Words that describe traits attributes of a person that are

PSYP319KeyTerms.docx - PSY-P319 Key Terms Chapter 1...

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PSY-P319 Key Terms Chapter 1Trait-descriptive adjectives – Words that describe traits, attributes of a person that are reasonably characteristic of the individual and perhaps even enduring over time. Personality – The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).Psychological traits – Characteristics that describe ways in which people are unique or different from or similar to each other. Psychological traits include all sorts of aspects of persons that are psychologically meaningful and are stable and consistent aspects of personality. Average tendencies – Tendency to display a certain psychological trait with regularity. Explains why the principle of aggregation works when measuring personality. Psychological mechanisms – Similar to traits, except that mechanisms refer more to the process of personality. May make people more sensitive to certain kinds of information from the environment (input), may make them more likely to think about specific options (decision rules), or may guide their behavior toward certain categories of action.Within the individual – the important sources of personality reside within the individual People carry the sources of their personality inside themselves and are stable over time ad consistent over situations. Organized – The psychological traits and mechanisms for a given person are not simply a random collection of elements. Personality is coherent because the mechanisms and traits are linked to one another in an organized fashion.Enduring – When psychological traits are stable over time.Influential forces – Personality traits and mechanisms are influential forces in people’s lives in that they influence our actions, how we view ourselves, how we think about the world, how we interact with others, how we feel, our selection of environments (particularly our social environment), what goals and desires we pursue in life, and how we react to our circumstances. Other influential forces include sociological and economic influences, as well as physical and biological forces. Person-environment interaction – A person’s interactions with situations include perceptions, selections, evocations, and manipulations. Perceptions refer to how we “see” or interpret an environment. Selection describes the manner in which we choose situations. Evocations refer tothe reactions we produce in others, often quite unintentionally. Manipulations refer to the waysin which we attempt to influence others. Adaptation – Inherited solutions to the survival and reproductive problems posed by the hostile forces of nature. Adaptations are the primary product of the selective process. An adaptation is a reliably developing structure in the organism, which, because it meshes with the recurrent structure of the world, causes the solution to an adaptive problem.
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