Study Questions for Final Exam s07

Study Questions for Final Exam s07 - Study Questions for...

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Study Questions for Final Exam Psyc 250 Spring 2007 Chapter 11: Attachment and the Development of Self 1. What is attachment? an emotion bond to parents or other primary caregivers. Definition: close enduring emotional bonds to parents or other primary caregivers. They appear to influence personality and one’s ability to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Appears to be biologically based Most children form such relationships. Children with a secure attachment are more likely to develop positive ad constructive internal working models of attachment. Secure attachment in infancy even predicts positive peer and romantic relationships and emotion health in adolescent. Securely attached children tend to earn higher grades than insecurely attached children and to he more attentive and involve in school. Signs of Attachment Baby shows preference for an individual. Baby uses caregiver as secure base from which to explore environment. Baby will see to maintain contact (physical and/or psychological) with caregiver. Baby shows distress upon separation from caregiver, especially when situation is unsettled. 2. What is a secure base? How is it used? Is Bowlby’s term for when an attachment figure presence provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment. He replaced the psychoanalytical notion of “needy, dependent infant” with the idea of “competence-motivated infant” who uses his/her caregiver as a support. 3. What causes the development of an attachment relationship? Consider Harry Harlow’s, John Bowlby’s and even Mary Ainsworth’s findings. Four initial development of attachment. Reattachment (birth to 6 weeks). In this phase, the infant produces innate signals, most notable crying, that bring others to his or her side, and then infant is comforted by the ensuring interaction Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 weeks). During this phase, infants begin to respond preferentially to familiar people. Typically they smile, laugh or babble more frequently in presence of their primary caregiver and are more easily soothed by that person. Clear-cut attachment (between 6-8 months and 1 ½ year) infants actively seek contact with their regular caregivers. They happily greet their mother when she appears and, correspondingly many separation protest or distress when she departs.
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Reciprocal relationships (from 1 ½ or 2 years). During this final phage, toddlers’ 4. How is attachment relationships formed? Explain the developmental progression that is outlined by John Bowlby. -The first relationships -early on children form relationships, some are brief -all relationships have the potential to influence the child’s development -social relationships can be complex -example- parent and baby exchanging information, not just verbally, also behavior -the messages that are sent and received between the two will influence what happens next
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