History of United states II.docx - chapters in CLEP History...

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Unformatted text preview: chapters in CLEP History of the United States II: Study Guide & Test Prep expand all | collapse all Ch 1. Reconstruction and the Gilded Age (1865-1877) Ch 2. Industrialization and Urbanization (1870-1900) Ch 3. The Progressive Era (1900-1917) Ch 4. American Imperialism (1890-1919) Ch 5. The Roaring 20s (1920-1929) Ch 6. The Great Depression (1929-1940) Ch 7. The US in World War ll (1941-1945) Ch 8. Post-War World (1946-1959) Ch 9. The Cold War (1950-1973) Ch 10. Protests, Activism and Civil Disobedience (1954-1973) Ch 11. The 1970s (1969-1979) Ch 12. The Rise of Political Conservatism (1980-1992) Ch 13. Contemporary America (1992-2013) Ch 14. CLEP History of the United States II Flashcards Reconstruction Period: Goals, Success and Failures Chapter 1 / Lesson 1 Reconstruction of the South following the American Civil War lasted from 1865-1877 under three presidents. It wasn't welcomed by Southerners, and there were many problems throughout this process. But, was it successful? Evaluating Reconstruction As the Civil War was drawing to a close in 1865, President Lincoln began making plans for the physical, economic, social and political rehabilitation of a region marked by four years of war and 200 years of racism. Republicans in the federal government felt responsible for restoring public infrastructure, private property, food production, medical care and housing - all while the workforce and economy were in shambles. Furthermore, they wanted to change many characteristics of Southern society and politics. Even though most of the programs were aimed at helping the South, many white Southerners resented the suggestion that their world needed to be reconstructed at all and fought against any changes imposed on them by Republicans, Northerners or anyone in the federal government. This struggle to rebuild Southern government, society, infrastructure and economy was called Reconstruction, and it dominated political debate for 12 years under three different presidents. But, was it successful? The Successes of Reconstruction President Lincoln's original goal in the Civil War was to hold the nation together. And in this, the war and Reconstruction were a success. The Confederacy was destroyed for good, and every state that had seceded was readmitted to the Union. In fact, the Civil War went a step further in terms of public thought. American historian Shelby Foote noted, 'Before the war it was said 'the United States are.' Grammatically, it was spoken that way and thought of as a collection of independent states. And after the war it was always 'the United States is,' as we say today without being self-conscious at all. And that sums up what the war accomplished. It made us an 'is.' The federal government outlawed slavery with the 13th Amendment, defined citizenship and protected all Americans under the law with the 14th Amendment and extended suffrage to all men in the 15th Amendment. Federal legislation, like the Freedman's Bureau and the Civil Rights Act, worked to get African Americans back on their feet and participating equally in the government, society and economy. Black men were elected to every level of government, including governors and senators. All of the Southern states drafted new constitutions and ratified the Reconstruction Amendments. Many African Americans participated in new state and local governments, which worked for equal rights and to rebuild or create services like schools, railroads, hospitals, housing, roads and asylums. Charitable organizations and individuals especially Northerners - worked to improve literacy and education for African Americans. Businessmen opened new industries, like steel, cotton and lumber mills to revitalize the economy. New cultural venues opened. Black institutions and churches gained autonomy. The Failures of Reconstruction Despite these many achievements, Reconstruction faced tremendous challenges, many of them (but not all of them) because of white resistance. In the early years of Reconstruction, the new state governments had many competent but inexperienced leaders. A few were carpetbaggers motivated by greed and corruption. Southern whites were often uncooperative with new legislation passed by blacks or Yankees. The vigilante groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, emerged to maintain white supremacy and intimidate black voters or any whites who supported them. And although there was some industrialization, the region remained committed to an agricultural economy and used sharecropping as a legal means to ensure that blacks would still work the land that whites still owned. As soon as former Confederates had their right to vote restored, so-called 'Redeemers' won public office and began to systematically undo most of the social and economic reforms. These were white, Southern Democrats who vowed to undo Reconstruction and restore the Old South. They passed voting restrictions and 'Black Codes' to suppress the rights and opportunities of African Americans at the state and local levels. Jim Crow laws made segregation legal. The Supreme Court supported these actions, generally saying that the 14th and 15th Amendments only applied at the federal level. And though the Radical Republicans had worked for nearly a decade to secure equal rights, the House of Representatives changed hands in 1874. Under Democratic leadership, government spending was cut and many Reconstruction programs were hurt or eliminated. By the late 1870s, many Northerners were tired of the fight for Reconstruction. Furthermore, economic worries turned national attention away from civil rights. So, when federal troops left the South after the Compromise of 1877 that settled the disputed presidential election, there was no enforcement of federal protections for African Americans. Despite constituting a majority of the population in some states, most blacks still lacked the resources, education, social standing and experience needed to defend their rights against white supremacists. The Redeemers had unchecked control over the politics, society and economy of the South. The Verdict? So, what do you think? Was Reconstruction a success? Just like a lot of political actions today, it really depends on how you look at it. Some may say it was successful, while others may say it was just a waste of time and money. Clearly, there were some lasting, positive changes. The nation was restored and slavery was abolished forever. The South was physically rebuilt. Yet, in spite of these achievements and some early social advances, Southern whites managed to regain control of society and politics, and black Americans would not regain the support of the federal government until the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Lesson Summary Let's review. Between 1865 and 1877, Republicans in the federal government worked to reconstruct the politics, society and economy of the South. There were tremendous advances at every level, including the Reconstruction Amendments and other federal legislation. As states were readmitted to the Union, new governments worked to improve services for all of their citizens, and private individuals contributed to the economic and educational development of the South. But many whites resisted the changes and the new governments. The Ku Klux Klan fought to maintain white supremacy. The economy remained largely agricultural. And legislation was undone by Redeemer governments with the support of the Supreme Court. The long battle of Reconstruction ended with the withdrawal of federal troops in 1877, and African Americans would not truly achieve legal equality until the 1960s. Learning Outcomes Following this article, you'll be able to: ● ● Explain the goals of Reconstruction Argue on both sides of the issue of whether Reconstruction was successful The Reconstruction Amendments: The 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments Chapter 1 / Lesson 2 Between 1865 and 1870, during the historical era known as Reconstruction, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution were ratified to establish political equality for all Americans. Together, they are known as the Reconstruction Amendments. The Reconstruction Amendments On October 17, 2006, the population of the United States hit 300,000,000. According to demographers, the famous baby was a little boy, born in Los Angeles County to Mexican parents. The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution granted this little one citizenship at birth. But his heritage (not to mention the illegal status of his parents) brought to light a politically charged question: should children born on U.S. soil automatically become American citizens? It's not actually a new question. Back in 1857, a Supreme Court case known as the Dred Scott Decision determined that black Americans were not citizens. The Fourteenth Amendment overturned that ruling, stating that 'All persons born or naturalized in the United States...are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.' This was one of three Constitutional amendments aimed at establishing political equality for Americans of any race. Together, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution are referred to as the Reconstruction Amendments. They address slavery, citizenship and voting rights. The Radical Republicans didn't always have the purest motives, they didn't always use the most democratic methods of achieving their goals and America is still not always perfectly equal. But history has proven that the controversial Reconstruction Amendments, which were designed to guarantee the rights of freed slaves, have helped to create one of the most free, most democratic societies in the world today. Thirteenth Amendment Gradual abolition began soon after the Revolution in Pennsylvania, and for nearly a century, various states and territories either abolished slavery or prohibited it from the outset. Then came the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, which legally freed all slaves held within rebellious states - but not those within Union border states like Missouri and Maryland. At the end of the Civil War in 1865, slavery was still not technically illegal in America. On December 6, 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery within the United States and its territories. It reads: 'Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.' The exception that allows servitude as punishment for a crime allows prisons to use inmate labor. Fourteenth Amendment With five separate sections, the Fourteenth is the lengthiest of the Reconstruction Amendments. The most significant and far-reaching was the first section, stipulating that 'All persons born or naturalized in the United States...are citizens.' It also explicitly declares that states may not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Later sections address suffrage, the right to hold public office, war debts and compensation for emancipation. Concerned that the Fourteenth Amendment would not have the necessary support for ratification, Congress passed additional legislation requiring former Confederate states to approve it as a condition of regaining federal representation. The amendment was ratified on July 28, 1868. Despite this shaky start, the Fourteenth Amendment, granting citizenship, due process and equal protection under the law for anyone born in the U.S., is cited more often than any other Constitutional amendment. It was used to make states enforce the Bill of Rights and it was the foundation for landmark Supreme Court cases like Brown v. Board of Education (which integrated schools) as well as legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Fourteenth Amendment has also been applied to gender discrimination and is currently in the spotlight because of the immigration debate. Some Americans feel that the amendment needs to be revised so that citizenship is not granted automatically. Fifteenth Amendment The last of the Reconstruction Amendments was ratified by the states in 1870. The Fifteenth Amendment declares: 'The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.' However, it didn't keep states from disenfranchising Americans with restrictions like poll taxes and literacy tests, nor did it ban gender discrimination at the polls. It would be almost another century before all American men and women could truly exercise the right to vote. Lesson Summary Let's review. The Reconstruction Amendments are a series of amendments to the U.S. Constitution that helped bring political equality to African Americans in the years following the Civil War. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery within the United States and its territories. The Fourteenth Amendment grants citizenship, due process and equal protection under the law for anyone born in the U.S. And the Fifteenth Amendment prohibits disenfranchisement based on 'race, color, or previous condition of servitude.' Lesson Objective After watching this lesson, you should be able to paraphrase the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, and explain their purposes and effects Westward Expansion: The Homestead Act of 1862 & the Frontier Thesis Chapter 1 / Lesson 3 Between the mid-1800s and the turn of the 20th century, the American frontier opened and closed abruptly. What factors influenced this land rush, and how did it help shape American history? Miners Open the West In the mid 19th century, the American frontier effectively stopped at the western edge of states that bordered the Mississippi River. Between there and California was a void, largely filled with Native Americans and scattered pioneers. But by 1890, the U.S. Census Bureau announced that the frontier had been all but erased. First, let's look at how western expansion happened so quickly, and then we'll talk about what one historian believes were the most lasting effects of the American frontier. The first people to 'open' the West were miners, hoping to strike it rich, first in California, then the Rocky Mountains, and finally the Black Hills and Yukon. In each place, the earliest prospectors stripped the surface metals quickly, and underground mining was then carried out by corporations. But even though most of the miners struck out, they left a tremendous legacy in the trails they blazed. The onslaught of people created roads, towns, and awareness of the West, so even though few prospectors actually struck it rich, they laid the foundations for permanent communities throughout the continent. The Homestead Act Another spike in westward migration came with the Homestead Act of 1862and similar bills in the 1870s. Beginning on New Year's Day, 1863, individuals could apply for a 160acre homestead west of the Mississippi River. The land was free, but in order to get the deed, the owner had to build a 12x14' home and grow crops for five years. The Homestead Act attracted people from many walks of life to the Great Plains, especially poor or landless farmers, disillusioned urban dwellers, freed slaves, and new immigrants. Where the prairie ended, beyond the reach of the Homestead Act, the wide open foothills of the Rocky Mountains served as home to scattered ranchers who grazed their cattle freely on the 'open range' where no homesteads or fences or property lines existed. Brands served to identify ownership of a herd. When the cattle were ready for sale, cowboys took them on what was called the long drive, walking sometimes thousands of miles to the nearest markets. For better or worse, this period in history also coincides with the Romantic era, in which many aspects of life were recorded more as ideals than reality. Farming and ranching in the West was incredibly difficult, if not impossible. Homesteaders might have land, but they couldn't afford the steel plow needed to break it or an animal to pull it. Even if they had the equipment and animals, they often didn't have enough water to irrigate the crops or water the animals. They didn't have trees to build houses or burn fires or light stoves. They faced all the same extreme weather conditions that modern Americans face - drought, wildfires, tornadoes, blizzards - but without any modern assistance. Many homesteaders lived in terror of murderous raids by Native Americans, and ranchers feared cattle rustlers. And they did almost all of this completely alone, isolated on their free 160 acres or trapped by the wide open space around them. Every three out of five homesteaders abandoned his land. It might have been difficult, but throughout the life of the bill, millions of Americans believed that they would be the next success story on the prairie. The Homestead Act saw another flurry of applications in the years following the collapse of Reconstruction, as African Americans fled the South, looking for a place to start over. As many as 40,000 of these so-called 'Exodusters' settled all-black towns in Kansas where they found more opportunity and equality. Changes in Western Farm Life The railroad eased life for many homesteaders, bringing more people, services, and opportunities. Farm goods could be sold and shipped much more easily to the East, and manufactured goods could be purchased and sent west to the eager farmers and their families. However, the railroad also brought in corporations that often managed to wrestle control of the best land, sources of water, and emerging local governments. Like homesteading, ranching on the open range peaked just after Reconstruction, but it came to a screeching halt in the 1880s. The invention of barbed wire effectively closed the open range. A series of terrible blizzards mid-decade also convinced many cattlemen to pack it in for good. Finally, the expansion of the railroad ended the need for the long drives, and suddenly, the cowboy life ended just as suddenly as it had begun. The enormous farms of the West would not have been possible without the aid of new technology. For example, a farmer in 1800 could harvest about a fifth of a hectare of wheat a day; using Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper, that same farmer could now harvest two and a half hectares a day. Many innovations made farming more efficient, and combined with the availability of land in the West, the total area of American farmland in production more than doubled between 1860 and 1910. Though cotton accounted for a large percentage of agricultural exports, American farmers also grew record surpluses of wheat and corn. The government also assisted farmers through the 1862 Morrill Land Grant College Act, which established colleges dedicated to research in scientific farming. One such researcher cured cholera in pig herds; another developed new strains of fruit to plant in California. Several federally-funded scientists traveled the world, looking for new crops and ideas, bringing back important breeds of wheat, corn, and alfalfa. Though the dramatic increase in productivity was good news for American city-dwellers, it meant that prices fell dramatically, which hurt farmers. The late 1800s was a desperate time for many of them, and a wave of agrarian discontent set off important political movements like the Grange. The Frontier Thesis The Census Bureau's 1890 announcement that the contiguous frontier had disappeared gave American historian Frederick Jackson Turner pause for thought. Three years later, he presented his Frontier Thesis to the Columbian Exhibition, stating, 'The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development.' Basically, the Frontier Thesis (or Turner Thesis, a...
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