Pols 209 Part 2

Pols 209 Part 2 - VI. Neoclassical Theory (cont.) A. The...

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VI. Neoclassical Theory (cont.) A. The “principles of administration” school of thought (cont.) 1. 2. 3. Org. structure = key to rational-scientific management 4. Orgs. should be structured according to: purpose, process, place, clientele, or thing 5. Unity of command (one person should be in charge) 6. Narrow span of control (one person in charge of a small amount of people) 7. Systematic planning (economic planning, cultural planners) 8. Scalar principle: command authority flows downward and should be commensurate with responsibility Henri Fayol: Summarized the principles in POSDCORB. Key tasks of the mgr. are: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting I. Attack on the “Principles”: 1940s and 1950s a. Overly structure (if you only focus on structure, you miss out the rest) b. Neglect of human and psych. Variables c. Inconsistent (ex: narrow span of control and decentralization) d. Confusion of “power” and “authority” (can exercise power without authority, can have authority, but no power) e. Ignored politics (can’t ignore politic if you organize correctly) II. Organizational Humanism: Human needs and values in organizations a. Material Needs: (want people to accomplish goals, need to know what makes people tick) Money as a dis-satisfier (celebrities are unhappy…ie…Britney) o Presence won’t make you happy, lack of will make you unhappy b. Social needs i. Chester Barnard: the “zone of indifference” 1. What you will do that is not within your job detail (ie. babysitting for your boss) ii. Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne Studies 1. Lighting study: Hawthorne effect – changes in lighting and the effect on workers of being observed a. Maybe because they thought they were being watched 2. Piecework study: social groups a. Give you one more dollar in your salary i. Didn’t work…kept producing at the same rate
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ii. Found out that it is possible to produce an extra phone b. Informal agreement “not to work too hard” between the workers 3. Ego needs: Abraham Maslow’s “needs hierarchy” a. Work up the pyramid towards our esoteric needs Physiological – gotta eat Safety and Security – home Love – in the form of another person Self-esteem – how to feel good about oneself Self-actualization – ability to use gifts for a noble purpose *** Not much evidence that this is true People are more than security seekers They want love and to be seen Workers get bored III. Criticisms of Org. Humanism (the “human relations” school)
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course POLS 209 A taught by Professor Penning during the Spring '08 term at Calvin.

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Pols 209 Part 2 - VI. Neoclassical Theory (cont.) A. The...

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