visdict3.pdf - SITEWORK fill To I'2lse an existing grne with earth ~ or other materla~ or the ~Iltltyof rnat.erbl usea In Pullalng ~ up the Ieve of an a

visdict3.pdf - SITEWORK fill To I'2lse an existing grne...

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Unformatted text preview: SITEWORK fill To I'2lse an existing grne with earth., ~ or other materla~ or the , ~Iltltyof rnat.erbl usea In Pullalng ~-- .. ----.-- --.-------. ------.---' .. up the Ieve! of an a r e a . ! ""'" ~4rouna GI'O\JI1J has ~n ralseJ to 3 higher level !:y fjlb~ with hard ruDPIe. dS stone or mien prick. Also called rough grading .r·------- .. The cutting. filling. ana sh3plng of earth In p~eparatlon for finish gradlng. : -. fine grading The precise graal"i! of an area ailer rough graQing to prepare for paving. seeaJng. or planting. "'\, aut ..... " grade nake A stake man:lng the amount of cut or flll required to ~rlng the ground to a specified level. rrt.1<k-up grooM. Pcrrowpit A p~ from which sand. gravel or other canstructloo mzterl3lIs ~ktn for use as fill In anot1'ter location. . controlled fill , All material that Is placed In laye.rs. compacted. and tested after each compaction for moisture corrtent, depth of 11ft. and Pearlng capacity ~~ additional layers are placed. vertkal curve A smooth paral10llc curve In the cut.3M fill An excmtl~ operation In which the exc.a~ m~11s lTlOVea to vertlcal plane for conMCtlng two grades of different slope In order to avok:! an aprupt transition. another rutlon ana used as fill Ptnch Ur"1'aCe cop y An eml73n~mentconstructed across sloping ground with a steep drop on the downside. I gin al --------------- ; -oJ ori g~ ~.------::- .... - .. - .... -.... -.-.--.---.-.-----.---- ... --... ---------' ... The ~r'O\Jnd elevation at.3rfi specific ...... Pv~ />Jsc cal1ed §rad4 U~. ,. the point on a con5tnIctlon Site. esp. where the ~ r()IJ nd IMtetS the foundation of a .. " cha se ~~g gn~ -.- .... -..... - j . The elevatlon of the orIglna I ground ~ ~Ion or grading ~ Also ~Ile.d vaa~ ur nrlura' 1 """'" of "" ! roooJ. I I reflll an eXcavation with earth. stene. or other material. esp. the space around exterior founaatlon walls. his eu1lgraM Th~ prep;a~earth surface upon which 2 p2vement. concrete slab. or foundation Is ~11t. A su~grak should bostapkt. anln well arid ~ relatively free of frost action. ...... --.... needle underpinning A system of SlJpports that enaDles an exlstlng fO<Jn.btlon to !:>e r'ePullt. strengthened. or detpened. esp. the ~fUl SlJP?Xt required wben a new exumIon III adJdnlng property is ~pet' than t.~ existIng found3tlon. 222 .J j0 dt ·--l-·-- ~ackfill nee J,.elowgraae - .... ---.---- ··-··--···--.. , Occurring or situated!:>elow the .. -----..... -... -.-- ---., .• you The ~at~ of drlv~. w;ols.lawns. or ather~ SIIt'faus ~ ~ ofcons~ orgraalng opomtions. Al:so. finished grade. boo grade .................. --... -.. --- if ~ kp $umu ..... i J ; I ...,I I A short Peam pas~ through a wan 35 a temporary support while the found3tlon or part ~eath Is repalre-d. altered. or strengthend Also called .. .oj nudr~ 17e.1m. .." ! I ~d&horcs An uprig hUlmpet' for supporting a dead load during the structural alteration of 2 pulJalng. esp. one of two supports for a needle. ___________J ,. SITEWORI< ,wale --------- ------ -... --... -. -.-. --.- -.... -.. -.-- ..-.-.-... - ~ runoff site drain3g8 A shallow depression formed by the l!1t.ersection of two groond slopes, often designed to direct or divert the Somethil14 that drains cr flows off,.s flows off the !Jna In streams. The surface and sullsurface drainage of a site In o r' to prevent the ccllectlon of exuss surface water or . gl'OtJnawater. . . rae runoff of sumu water. surface drainage The grading and sumclng of 3 site In order to divert rain ana other surface + l' 1 '1 1 r:£~;~~~~;;:~~ ~j,\"'Cr:,;~vcF~11~; i .. ; .T: :' r ccnslstl~ ::~::t~~_~_~~~~ . . _ . ._ _. . . . ;l.__~ .. i.' ;.j:I': water Into natural drainage pattems or a storm sewer system. of th, springs, :j largely of surface :. The process by which groundwater I s ! '. . ~ '.. :. 1j'~':'1 absarbtdlntothewatertal:rie. '" .... .... cutcff Awall or other structure Intenaea to elIminate or reduce percolation through porous strata. .' i 1 .. - curtain drain .............. ;:~:::~~~~~~ ~~~~h-' ----·-1~2~7T~~·.:-;::::;~~ ~;~'~~'.~~ which the earth Is saturated wtth wa ter. "> " .' __ .: ' . ' . . . , A drain placed l1etween the souru of water;lnd the area to l1e protected. :'.~ .. '.' . : perched w4TUrta~1e It A W3terta~ofUmIWarea,held' above the noot13l watertal:rie by an ImpeTYlouS byer. . . I :~::;~I~i~nUrcepting draIn. ___ .. _. __ .____ L_. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ I Aperforated pipe Installed In porous fill to draw off groundW3ter. , ....... --..... French drain y A drainage trench filled to ground level with loose stones or rock fragments. I Adrain or c~nnel p3sslng under a (" "". ' ""'-.. A corn; rete OI"II13S0nry retaining 1';311 :.luhe Inlet of a drain orcufvert. -. ~ ..: " ... ...... e:1od'l'!.311 .----..... ---.---- ..... ---.-..... -- .. ;-- -.-:--------: >/ conveying groundwater to a pelnt of disposal, as a storm sewer system. Excess groundwater reduces the badcarrying capacity of a foundatlon soil and Increases the hydrost3tlc pressure on a l1ulldlng foundation. /-"'--'l - .. -.----------. --- are.idraln A drain for collecting surface water or r.llnwaterfrom a I1asement floor or paved 3re3 . kp l.:// I . boo AconcreU OI"lI1asonry retaining 1'1311 ;ottM outletofa drain or culvert. "- . . ", .. ori hea~1I --.--~--- .. --------------../.-.. . 7/-"" , ur rectangular cross section. An underground network of piping for the A reinforced concrete culvert having ~ subsurface drainage gin . ·..... A~,- box culvert 3 al "'" --------'. se ~---- .. - cha rwdorsldewal\:. cop ; culvert .-..--.--- ........ --....... dry well nee dt his Adr.llnage ptt lined with gravel or ru!1!71e to reGelve surfau water and allow It to percelaU away to :.lUsorPent earth underground. Also called ,11~~ wetl. you --.- ~nhole Acovered h<l!e through which a person if may enter 3 sewer or drain . . .j------ catch ~a,jn ~--.-. .'.i .: i A receptacle for the runoff of surnu water, having a 113sln which retains heavy sediment 11ef0re tt can pass Into an underground drainpipe. I l building ,term drain ------! bunding ,term 5~er Abuilding d",fn forconveylng A drain conr.tC;.Jng a ~ui!dil"~ storm ralnwaUr, groundwater, or Similar dlscha rge to a Iroltdlng storm sewer or a comPlned sewer. Also called hou~ 6tom1 drain. drain to a storm 5e"l't'er, ,",m~ned sewer, or atl-.er point of a~31. Also called M.c-Jse storm ~er. -. :- sUJrm~r A sewer for conveying r.llrrrall drained from roofs 3nd paved 5urf;au5. A'rso called storm drain. com~ined sewer A sewer cor.veylng roth sewage and rainfall a",~:-.e.1 from roofs ana pv'ed 5ur'~as. 223 SOil The top layer of the earth's surface. consisting of dis inttg rated rock and decayed organic matter sui'ta!1le for the growth of plant life. r~----··---···---···- r-:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~':::::;:;~::::I -.-....... --.----... --....... -...--.. -. The fertile surface layer of soil as Soli containing a large amount of organic matter. usually very compressll7le and having poor load-sustaining properties. )..- ~p~1I organic scil d1stlnct from the suPsolI. ~jl profile ,ub~oil ~-- A d!3gram of a vert\wl section of soil from the grou nd su rface to the underlyfng material showlng a succession of horizons deve10ped Dy weathering. deposltlon. or ...- .. -- .... -------.----... - ...--. The ~ or la)-er of earth immediately l1eneath the surf.lce sort. • Doth. permafrost f'erennlally froun subsoil In arctic or SUDarctlc regions. Also called ~rgelr~1. J-- - ~~~; series of rel3Uvely distinct of soli or Its underlying material found in a vertical section of 13nd. laye~ m"""7""r;'"77""7"7777"":~777"7"""T":r"7"7i ,unum A single red or layer of sedimentary earth or rock having the same composition throughout. lying l1etween l1eds of another kInd. . ". -.'. "',,:':::::4,. . <3 • . • " . . . . . . :: . -:: . .... . ' ·d . . ~ . ~ . o ... cop ., ·0 ".. - . d,' D . al . . :.0. " y .. ",~: gin "'il ~nalysi5 the ori A process for determining the particlesize dlstrfl1utlon In an aggregate. soli. or sedIment. ~1cb~--------------------------------------------__. dt his boo kp ur cha se A numerlc.1I classlflcatlcn of soil by texture. used by the U..s.l?epartment of Agriculture: (l) gravel (2) sana. (3) clay. (4) loam. (5) loam with some sana. (6) sUtloam. and (7) clay-loam. you nee l- grave! Sman peDVles arJ stones. or a mixture of these wtUt sand. fol1l'\ed etther nzturally or by crushing rock. esp. such m~1 that will pass a.3-ln. (76 mm) *'e ana be retained on a No. <4 (4-" 111m) sleve. col:rPfe A naturally rounded stone, smaller than a !:ootrlder and brger than a peD~. used for rough paving. walls. and foundrtlons. Also called col:rf,festoM. if boulder A large. nmrally rounkd roct.ly!ng on tM surface of the ground or partially em!:ledded hi!"t. crushed gravel Gravel luivlng one or more fractured faces produced by mecnanbl crushing. 6 cru,hed ,tone ~ Stone having well-defined edges produced by the mechanical crushing of rocks or Doulders. Nso called Cf1.IsM.d rock. pea gravel A small-d1ameter. natural gravel. usually If4 to 3fe In. (6.4 to 95 mm) In slzt. screened to speclf1catbn. pepple A small. rounded stane. especl311y one worn smooth by the acUon of water. 224 '-1r.a cby A loose. granular mater!31 resulting from tne dlsl~ratbn of rxks. conslstlng of grains smaller tn~n grnell1ut coarser A natural. e3rthy matertJl that Is plastlc when IMOIst M hard when flred and Is used for Mlng I1r~t tile. and potte.")'. composed ma Inly of flne partlcles of hydrous aluminum sl/k;ates less than O.D02 mm 1n dl3meter. tnan $lit. 5.1MCt.y A wdl-g~ naturallycuumng sand often used as a Pase or sul1Da5e material. having aPout 101 cby or Just enough to rnal:e the mixture ~lnJ tightly when compacted. silt loose ~entary material consisting of flne mInerai particles l1etween 0.002 mm ~nd 0.05 mm In diameter. cL1yloam Soli containing m to 40t clay and 2O'.t to~tsand. I1entonite Aclay formed by the decomposition of volcanic ash. having the a!111lty to al;>sorl1 large amounts of water and to expand to I I .... several tl~ Its natural volume. loam A rich soil containing" rdatlvely equal mixture of sa rJ and slit and a sm,lIler proportion of clay !lna organic matter. loess An unstratlfle.d. cohesive. loamy deposit deposited Dy wind. I l..:ool -. SOIL geotechnical Of or pertainIng to the practical applications of geologica/science In civil engineering. I/[\. Atu~Umit5 foundatIon investigation The levas of water content defining the Po\JndJ~ ~UI1 the different states of con~ncy of a plastic or cohesive soli. lIS ~ !1y standard tests. I~uid The investigation and classification of a foundation solll7ased on observation and tests of material dlsclosea by l7or1ngs or excavations to obtain the information necessary for the deslgn of a foundation system. Includln9 the shearing strength. compressluillty. cohesion. expansiveness. permeal7J1lty. ana molswre ccnterrt of the scli. the elevation of the water ta!lle. and the antlclpated total and differential settlement. Also called su17surface Investlg3tfon. lait •._._ .. --...... --- .. ---........ "'- --. The W3~conttnt. expressed as ;,I ~~ of Iry ~ht. at which a soli p2~ fmn , pbs~ to a liquid state. p~,ticlt.yindd -.- .. ---.----.-----.- .. --.--.. -.-'.0 The nurnen:.1 d1ffertn<:e I1etween the /!quid hllit and the plastic limit of a soli. pWtlclinit ---.. ---.---.,.--.. ---:-.----.-- t- The W3tercontent. expressed as a ~rcetTb¥ of dry weight. at which a soli lcses Its pbstlclty and l7eglns to l7ehave t- I-- l- :-- pl.a5tlc soil A soil M can ~ rolled Irtta '/8 In. - (32- l- mm) diameter thre3ds wtthout cruml7l1ng. I-- t- - An undlstur17ed. cylindrical sample of earth or n:x;k otrtalr1ed I7y means of ~ core drill and used for analySis ana testln9 of l1earlng Col paclty. Also called poring. .. -- cohesive soil Soli that has consldera Pte strength when I- unconfined and air-dried. cohesion when SU!:I!T1ergd ana Significant I-I-- dI- 11,-- In -II I-i/ I-- 'I -I -III "-III >-- I- cop y .- cohesionle" soli r -1/ 1-'1 I- -II~I 1-11 () the ori -I -III - III - ~rln~r.r~1 rch ase AIry §rnd. S3nd. 0- sUt that exhibits ~o cohesiv~ 01' plastlclty. ~p.rfty ook pu The propc:rty of a porous nuteri31 tha t ail.uwsa 95 01' lIqula to pass through Its Soli that has little or no strength when unconfined and air-dried. and little or no cohesion when sulnnerg.ed. al The W3~corrtent. expressed as a ~runb¥of Iry ~Ight. at which a rtJuctloII mwater c:ontent win nat cause a further dt:cre3se In the volume of a soli nuss. core I"- l- '-- -'."'.'" ... -- -.. -.- .... -.--.- soil stnJcture The arrangement and aggregation of soli particles In a soli mass. I-I-- l- I- The I7ranch of eMI englneerlng that deals with the mechanical f,ehavlorof so~ wnen compressed or sheared. or when water flows through It. gin shrin~limit - I-- t- mectunlc, I-- lI-I- . tItl- as;,l sol1J.. ~iI The consolidation of se.dlment ~ the 01' a similar ~ht of cmrl:tlng compression of soil aggregate. Or cemerrtttlous materiall1y roiling. tamping. aeposlts. orSQ3(Ing. . optimum moisture conUnt The water content of a SOt1 at which maximum denslty can ~ attalMd through compaction. ou n eed thi sb ~res~. --------------------~ft~~~~~A~i~ .r------.---...-~ compaction if y .. Oid,...tlo ___ ..... _.. _. __ .. _._ .. _.... _.. _._. __ .____. _ . [ . The ~ of the volurr.e of vok:l spaces to the volume of sold particles in 3 soH maS(;. Crft.tc31 void I'3tlo ~ 't'OIJ rnlo corresponding ~ ns-I';y of , to the c r i t i c a l . SOli Jn3 ss. penetration ~ A test for measuring the density of 9ra nular soils and tMconsi5tency of some clays at tM rottom of a MI!o~. recordl"4 the number of Plows reqUired by a ha mmer to advance a st4ndard sod sampler. crftbl~ ~netrztlon ~l,-unu The untt ~ht of a S3turatea granular "".;1 terl31 ~~ which It will gain strength The unit load reqUired to produce a speclfled penetration Irrto a soli at a ar.a ~w willch It wUl Io5e strength when specified rate of penetration. subjected to rapla defomt3tlon. p~u, ~n -_.--_ .. _........ -.- ..... -.- .. -.... -... . ;..rry ~nrabie SOil true allows the r'!la ttvefy free morerr.em of wakr. impervlo~ seil ---. ..- ...... -- ... ----........ . Arry flr<:'g~1ned soli, as clay, h3Ylng pores t.:xJ small to permit w3ter to pass except b-j slow ca~ry aGt'C'1 shearing sU'en~ The property of a so" that enaPtes Its particles ~ resist displacement with respect to one another when an external force Is applied. d~ largely to the com171ned effects of cohesion and internal friction. Also called shu~ resistance. 225 SOLAR ENERGY :~-- .. --- ~Iar path diagram A graphic deplctlon of the path of t~ Sun withIn the sky vault projected onto a horlzon~1 pl3ne. / / : .ltitude The angulareievatlon of a celestial roay a!love the horizon. _..- ..... ... , ..... summer ~I,tice Thetl",,", of year, on onDoutJune 21, wMn the sun reaches Its northernmost point on the celestlalsphtre. rruri::lng the beglnnl~ of summer In the northern hemisphere. f equinox ! Either of the two times during thayear ! when the sun crosses the ~ne oftht ; celestial equator and ~ the ~ of d3y and night are evetjWhm appi-ox!mate~ ~uat oc.;urring aPout March 21 (vernal equinox or spri~ equinox).ana SepUm[,er 21 (autumnal equinox). - ... - ..----... -----... - winter ~15ttce Thetl",,", ofye:ar. on or aPout Decem bet 21, when the sun re3ches Its scuthernn-.:;.st point on the celestial sp~re, marking the ~Inn!ng of winter In north or south from the tl<\uator of a point on the e.rth's ~ angular distance se the ori gin al cop y ~'-+-+--!--+---+-'-l""';--+-\ cha ~brho~ ur A house ~ned to morv and store sobr hat III order to su pplement or kp replace conYC11tlonal heating methods. .,,-_.-.... _-- .. - surface. IMe.3syrea In degrees along the rnerldI.an pa55l~ through the point. meridian A gre3t circle on the e;;rth's surface passing through Doth ~hyslc.af poles. Io~ltude The angulardlstance e3st or weston ~ earth's surface, me4surea from the prime ",,",nabn at Gtunwlch. England. to the meridian of a glvtn point arid expressed either In degrees or a correspondtng difference In tlrr.e. boo ~laHatl"i ,y,tern A ~ system u~ solar ener~.as his the prWrtal7i source of he3t. dt ,oL-ir collector A dev1ce or system deslg ned to use sola r nee radlatlon to heat an al1sorPer through which a transportlns medium, as air or water, Is circulated. Also called ccI1ector... · if you ~!y. the northern _.-._ .. _.. ---..... - latitude ~ 430 6tu per hr. per SIt. ft. (1.94 cal per min. per sq. em), used In calculating the effects of solar rad1atlon on lroiIJlngs. ~ ~br-he~ting 5y5tem I hemisphere. COMtoInt _.--_ ................... '-'-""-' Tnt ave:rage rate at which radiant ener~ from the sun 15 receIv~ by the earth, equal ~br AsoIa/'"hQtJng system iJslng mechanical tne2ns, as solar collectors, t.1nS. or pumps. to collect, store, and dlstrll7!1te solar , I ~ l l 1 ~~ ~. sensors, corrtroIs, 6nJ pumps or f./ns ~ or1ent.atlon The pbcIng of a building In relation to the path of the sun, either to niaxlmlze the amount of heat gained from Solar rad13tlon cfur1~ the widest months. or to minimize the alr()Unt of heat gained In the wannest months. 226 ~ b L L SOLAR ENERGY passive 5CL1r-heating. A solar-heating system using a InJlldlng's design and construction and the M4ltunl flow of heat to collect. store, and dlstrluute solar energy. with minimal use of fans or pumps. ~ ----------_ .. A ~nk of t<lrth placed against one or ~e:xterlorwal1sof a bUIlding as ~n ~alnst extremes In tem~ture. -----------.-.--.. ---------.---..~ Trompe wall A glass-fronted exterior masonry waif that ausorUs solar heat for radiation Into the Interior of a InJlldlng. us~11y after a tI~-lag drumwall --------- ---------A st.rl of blJck. wa~filled drurr.s pl3ced on the Insldt of a window wall to a~ sol3rM3t and then release tt slowly Into the Interior of a uul1dI~. of severa I hours. 5OIo3rlum cop y A glass-enc~ porch. room. or gallery used for sunuathlng or for therapeutic exposure to sunlight. .~ al ,unroom the ori gin A gl3s5-enc~ porch or room oriented to admtt large amounts of sunlight. Also called sun parlor. sun parch_ i---"'--'~ ,un deck A roof, balcony, or terT;lce that I:s exposed to the sun and used for sunbathing. ----------------.---. -', A. ~of~rIous~rdevk:esfor ~utatt~ tM amount of solar ht3t and su~ht th3t ~rs 3 window. coo5lstl~ of II1OV3 U!e horlzonta I or ~.lc4l fins controfb:l manually or ~ automatlc3lly wtth time or kp I '" ,.--- -,- -.,- /--7J:..:-.---.. ------.---------.:;---.-. ,un,~ae .. boo ~ccntrof ur cha se 1 ~~~~~~___-==---_~.-~l dt his -: Any of various exterior devices c~slstl"9 of fixed horizontal or vertical fins angled to shield a window from direct sunllght_ if you nee ~controIs. ~\Itt.e1' ~Hnd -'-'--'" --.--------- -- A !f'"3nually or electrlca Ily controlled exterior Vet1 et 13 n pll nd for protectln~ a b-ultdlnq Interior from solar gain and ~lare. --.--- ---, 1ni~·5Clell A screen. usually of louvers, placed on th~ outside of alnJlldlng to shield the windows from direct sunlight. ..... ··---+·-·-···I·'···-:-=r-~,r.··-t-·~ 5OIo3r ureen A panel of miniature external louvers for shading a window from dtreGt sunllght and glare while allowing a high Mgru of vlsltnllty. d3yllghtlng. ventilatIOn. visual daytime privacy. and Insect protection. 227 SOUND The senSAtion stimulated in the organs of he3ri~ I7y mechanical r3al3nt energy transmitUd as longitudinal pressure waves through the .air or other medium. &0 \ \ \ \ I una wave A IongltuJlnal pressure wave In air or an elastic medium. esp. one producing an audlUle senS3tion. wave Adlstumnce or oscllbtlon that transfers energy progressively from point to point In 2 medl tim 01' space without adv3nce I7y the p<?lnts thtmselves. as In the transmission of sourul or ~ht. j I I I / waveform A graphic representation of the shape of a wave. ol1talned by plotting deviation at a fIxeJ point versus tllI18. ..........•.• .' I / ;' .' w.1Velength ----------.--------... ----, .. - amplitlJde The maxlmum aevl3tlon of a wave or alt:enutlng curren...
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