College-Writing-Skills Tynerpdf.pdf - College Writing Skills Tom Tyner Breadan Publishing Breadan Publishing College Writing Skills Tom Tyner Copyright

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Unformatted text preview: College Writing Skills Tom Tyner Breadan Publishing Breadan Publishing College Writing Skills Tom Tyner Copyright 2016 by Breadan Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Address for Domestic and International Orders Breadan Publishing 4706 N. Quail Lake Dr. Clovis, CA 93619 Website: Telephone: 559-291-2152 Fax Fax number: 559-291-1978 Printed in the United States of America ISBN: Breadan Publishing Preface College Writing Skills is a process-oriented textbook written to help students develop their college-level writing skills. The intent of College Writing Skills is to help prepare students for success in required college writing courses, in courses across the curriculum that require writing, and in occupations beyond college. Students learn by writing, and the textbook provides a variety of writing assignments that require you to develop and apply different writing and thinking skills as you progress through the book. Essay Writing In college composition courses, students write a variety of essays. In College Writing Skills, you write a different type of essay in each unit of the textbook, twelve essays in all. To engage your interest and allow you to draw upon your experience and knowledge, you choose your own writing topic for each type of essay: narrative, expository, persuasive, comparative, problem/solution, and critique. Along with your twelve essay assignments, you also write timed in-class essays which will help prepare you for in-class writing in other English courses as well as essay tests across the curriculum. Experience is the best teacher for writing under in-class time constraints, and College Writing Skills provides you with eleven such experiences. Writing Process In each unit, you use a writing process to develop your essays. The basic process of prewriting, drafting, revision, and editing is repeated in each unit, with new instructional elements presented in each section that apply to the type of essay you are writing. The process is repeated in each unit so that you become familiar enough with it to use for any writing you may do. The text also recognizes the individual differences among writers. For some writers, prewriting may involve detailed planning while for others, it may involve coming up with an idea to get started. The text recognizes such differences and allows for individual flexibility within the writing process rather than a one-size-fits-all model. The textbook also recognizes that some students come to the course with considerable writing experience, and you are encouraged to take both what you find valuable from the text and from your previous writing experiences to create the most effective personal writing process. Importance of Revision College Writing Skills also strongly emphasizes the role of revision in the writing process. Throughout the text, you work on revising and improving your writing in a number of areas: wording, organization, content development, paragraphing, openings and conclusions, transitional wording, and so on. The text provides specific revision guidelines for the type of writing you do in each unit and emphasizes the role that revision has for all writers. Writing Correctness As the last step in the writing process, you proofread and edit your essay drafts to eliminate errors. Being able to write “correctly” – using correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling – is critical to your writing success in college and beyond and an achievable goal. Within each unit, the text provides instruction in the areas of punctuation, grammar usage, and spelling where writers have the most problems: run-on sentences and comma splices, sentence fragments, comma usage, subject-verb agreement, and so on. You also learn to proofread a draft effectively, looking in particular for your personal error tendencies. Writing as Communication College Writing Skills also emphasizes writing as a form of communication. To that end, you write for different reading audiences, including your classmates, and for a particular purpose: to inform, entertain, influence, educate, or move readers to action. The writing assignments in the text are “real” in the sense that they are written for others to read and for particular purposes. Writing Samples Throughout the text are sample essays – first drafts and revised versions - that you can use in number of ways: to get ideas for your writing, to see how writers develop, organize, and paragraph their essays, to read and evaluate different openings and conclusions, to see how writers develop and support a thesis, or to see how writers incorporate research material into their essays. The sample essays also provide models for each type of essay that you write. Readings In each unit, you “take a break” from writing between essay assignments to read some in-text essays written by published writers. You read them for your personal enjoyment, to see how other writers develop their essays, and to get some ideas for your own writing. The “Questions for Discussion” at the end of each essay serve to initiate class or group discussions, including how the topics and issues in the essays may relate to your own experiences. Table of Contents Unit One: Narrative Writing Writing Reflection Narrative Writing Writing Process Prewriting Focusing Your Topic Free Writing 1 3 3 4 5 5 Drafting Providing Description Descriptive Words Power of Verb Power of Adjectives First-Draft Guidelines 8 8 10 10 12 15 A Little Logic 17 Revision Sentence Wording Revision Guidelines ss Peer Review 19 19 23 27 Editing Correct Writing Irregular Verbs Run-on Sentences Editing Guidelines 30 30 31 35 38 A Little Logic 39 Reading Break “In the Face of Adversity,” Nelson Mandela “Escape,” Park Ji Woo 40 40 43 Using Personal Experience for Support 46 Prewriting Topic Selection 47 47 Drafting Presenting Your Point Drafting Guidelines 49 49 51 A Little Logic 53 Revision Revision Guidelines 54 55 Editing Editing Guidelines 58 59 Timed Writings Writing the Essay Timed Writing One 60 60 63 Unit Two: Expository Writing Prewriting Topic Selection Audience and Purpose Process Considerations 65 65 66 67 A Little Logic 122 Revision Revision Guidelines 123 123 Drafting Opening Paragraphs Closing Paragraphs Drafting Guidelines 68 68 70 71 Editing Editing Guidelines 127 128 Timed Writing Three 129 A Little Logic 73 Revision Transitional Wording Revision Guidelines 74 74 78 Editing Subject-verb Agreement Comma Usage Editing Guidelines 83 83 89 96 Timed Essay Timed Writing Two 97 99 A Little Logic 99 Reading Break “What Pregnant Women Won’t Tell You,” Elise Anders “Helping the Homeless,” Eduard Guzman 100 Prewriting Topic Selection Generating Material Audience and Purpose 107 107 108 109 Drafting Paragraph Development Providing Examples Drafting Guidelines 110 110 114 119 100 104 Unit Three: Persuasive Writing Prewriting Topic Selection Brainstorming Thesis Statement Thesis Support Making a List Opposing Viewpoints 131 131 132 133 136 139 139 Drafting Reading Audience Writing Purpose Drafting Guidelines 141 141 143 146 A Little Logic 147 Prewriting Topic Selection Researching Your Topic Finding Sources Directed Research Thesis Thesis Support Opposing Arguments Audience and Purpose 171 171 172 172 173 174 175 178 179 Drafting Incorporating Research Paraphrasing Drafting Guidelines 180 180 180 183 A Little Logic 185 Revision Varying Sentence Structure Revision Guidelines 186 186 190 Revision Organization Revision Guidelines 148 148 150 Editing Sentence Fragments Commonly Confused Words Editing Guidelines 152 152 155 160 Editing Double Negatives Editing Guidelines 193 193 196 Timed Writing Four 161 Timed Writing Five 198 A Little Logic 162 A Little Logic 198 Reading Break “Is College Worth It?” Alondra Frey 163 “The Intelligence of Beasts,” Colin Woodward 166 Incorporating Research 170 Unit Four: Problem Solving Prewriting Topic Selection Analyzing the Problem Finding Solutions Thesis 200 200 201 203 204 Drafting Audience and Purpose Incorporating Research Avoiding Plagiarism Drafting Guidelines 239 239 240 243 244 Drafting Audience and Purpose Organization Drafting Guidelines 206 206 207 207 A Little Logic 247 Revision Revision Guidelines 248 248 Revision Revision Guidelines 210 211 Editing Comparative Adjectives Editing Guidelines 251 251 255 Timed Writing Seven 256 Editing 215 Colons, Semi-colons, Dashes 215 Pronoun Usage 219 Subject Pronouns 219 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 221 Editing Guidelines 224 Timed Writing Six 225 A Little Logic 226 Reading Break 227 “Are You a Procrastinator?” Julianne Kuroda 227 “Cyber Bullying,” Anton Hout 230 Prewriting Topic Selection Researching Your Topic Workable Solutions Thesis Organizing Research Material 233 233 234 236 237 238 Unit Five: Critique Writing Critical Reading 257 Logical Fallacies 260 Prewriting Topic Selection Critiquing Your Essay Critique Thesis Thesis Support Audience and Purpose 263 263 264 265 266 267 Drafting Drafting Guidelines 302 302 Revision 307 Revision Guidelines 307 Editing Possessive Words Editing Guidelines 311 311 313 Timed Writing Nine 315 Drafting Writing a Critique 268 269 A Little Logic 273 Revision Revision Review Revision Guidelines 274 274 276 Editing Punctuating Quotations Editing Guidelines 279 279 282 Timed Writing Eight 283 A Little Logic 284 Reading Break 285 “Overcoming Abuse,” Shawna Platt 285 “Mama,” Jess Yim Ka-mei 290 Prewriting 292 Topic Selection 292 “The End of Football,” John Cass 293 “How Black is Black Enough?” Leonard Pitts Jr. 294 “Marriage:The Way Out of Poverty,” Jennifer Marshall 295 “Money Doesn’t Buy Happiness,” Sharon Begly 297 Critical Reading 299 Thesis and Support 300 Unit Six: Comparative Writing Prewriting Comparative Subjects Comparative Criteria Topic Selection Researching Subjects Audience and Purpose 317 317 317 319 321 321 Drafting Organizing a Comparative Essay Drawing Conclusions Drafting Guidelines 323 323 324 326 A Little Logic 328 Revision Revision Guidelines 329 329 Editing Misplaced Modifier Dangling Modifier Editing Guidelines 333 333 334 336 Timed Writing Ten 338 A Little Logic 338 Reading Break “Chinese Mothers are Superior,” Amy Chua “Attending Weddings,” Ramone Sandoval 339 Prewriting Critical Reading Comparing Essays 346 346 350 Drafting Drafting Guidelines “The Flight from Conversation,” Sherry Turkle “Social Media’s Positive Influence,” Josh Rose 352 352 339 344 353 356 A Little Logic 360 Revision Revision Guidelines 361 361 Editing Editing Guidelines 365 366 Timed Writing Eleven 368 Introduction College Writing Skills is a process-oriented textbook written to help students develop their college-level writing skills. The intent of College Writing Skills is to help prepare students for success in required college writing courses and in courses across the curriculum that require writing. Beyond that, your ability to write well will benefit you well beyond college in whatever occupation you choose and in your personal communications. College Writing Skills focuses on the most typical type of writing in college composition courses and other courses across the curriculum: the essay. Throughout the text, you write different types of essays that are most commonly assigned in writing courses: narrative, expository, persuasive, problem/solution, comparative, and critique. The ability to create wellorganized, well-reasoned, well-written essays will serve you well through your college experience. College Writing Skills helps you to continue developing the writing skills you have already acquired as you plan, write, revise, and edit twelve essays during the course. The text builds on your current writing ability and past writing experiences, recognizing that you are certainly not a novice to writing. You will continue to improve your writing throughout college and beyond, and even writers who make a living from it never stop learning and improving. Of course, writing constantly over a period of months can lead to writing fatigue. Therefore, the text provides “reading breaks” in each unit, giving you time to read and discuss some interesting in-text essays by published writers, from which you may also get ideas for your own writing. The readings provide a nice change of pace, and you will also benefit from seeing how other writers develop their essays. Finally, good writing and sharp thinking go together. Writing is the act of putting your thoughts on paper, and the quality of your thoughts largely determines the quality of your writing. The varied essay assignments in the text help you to sharpen your thinking skills, as do the eighteen “logic” activities interspersed throughout the text. Anyone who is a good thinker can become a good writer, and College Writing Skills is intent on helping you to become both. 1 College Writing Skills Unit One: Narrative Writing As you no doubt know, writing is a skill that improves with practice like any other skill. Through experience and practice, we become better drivers, better swimmers, more adept computer users. Writing is no different. The more you practice and the more experience you have, the better writer you become. Since College Writing Skills is obviously a writing text, you can expect to do a lot writing throughout the course. While the text has its share of instruction to help develop your writing skills, you will write regularly to apply what you learn. To engage your interest, you will write primarily on topics of your choosing, about sbuejct that interest you personally. Most often, the best writing occurs when writers have a genuine interest in their topics. Selecting topics of interest will no doubt make your writing experience most enjoyable and produce the best results. Practice does one other important thing. It enables you to apply your own unique intelligence and aptitudes to figure out what works best for you. In ddriving, you develop the best process for parallel parking a car. In swimming, you learn to move your arms underwater in ways that propel you fastest. You develop your own short-hand method of trolling the Internet quickly and efficiently. In writing, you devise a personal best method for revising and improving an essay effectively. Through practice, and some trial and error, you make the writing process your own. Writing Reflection You have probably done your share of writing in school over the years and have formed an opinion about it. Write for a few minutes about your writing background: your writing experiences in school, how you feel about writing, why you feel as you do, and how you College Writing Skills 2 currently assess your writing ability. Include one or two examples, if you can recall, of particular writing experiences that have helped shape your opinion. Here is a sample response for a similar topic: My Art Experience I’m not very good at art, so I can’t say I greatly enjoyed my art experiences in school. I remember drawing a poster in grade school for a school safety campaign and the penguin I drew looked more like an ostrich, which other students pointed out to me. The free-form drawings I did in junior high all looked very similar while I saw other students doing some really creative things with colors and shapes. I never had much talent. I remember drawing horses in a freshman class. We were doing figure drawings. It took me a long time, but I finally was able to get the head, body, and leg proportions right so my drawings actually looked like horses. It was the first success I had at drawing, and all I wanted to do in class was draw horses. However, we moved on to other things, and I never had the same success that I had with my horses. That was the last art class that I took until now and honestly, I wonder what I’m doing in here. Fortunately, we’re going to do more than draw in the class, and I think the other stuff like sculpting and making pots might be interesting. Maybe my attitude will change and I’ll find something I can do. Follow-up Writing Share your writing with a few classmates, something that you will be doing throughout the course, and read about their writing experiences, comparing their experiences to your own. Write for a few minutes about the similiarities and differences in students’ writing experiences and attitudes towards writing and how they compare to your own. What conclusions about the writing experience of students can you draw from reading your classmates’ writing? Sample response on art experience: Other students enjoyed their art experiences more than I did. From their writing, most of the students really liked art and some continue to enjoy it. I didn’t read about any of the kinds of negative experiences that I had with art. One student said he wasn’t good at art but liked it anyway, which was just the opposite of me. It seems like most students enjoyed their art experiences, and one or two of them even won some art awards in elementary school. From what I read, it seems that liking art comes from having a good time with it and not taking it too seriously. I never approached it that way. Of Note: In these short writing assignments, you applied a number of different thinking skills. You formed opinions based on your experience, assessed your own writing skills, analyzed the writing experiences of other students, compared and contrasted those experiences, and drew conclusions based on your evaluation of what your classmates wrote. You applied different types of thinking skills to your writing that you will use throughout the course and your college career. 3 College Writing Skills Narrative Writing You will undoubtedly do some narrative writing - writing about your own personal experiences in future writing courses and perhaps in other courses across the curriculum. In college, you may do narrative writing for different purposes: To share with readers a riveting experience that they may find inspiring, tragic, humorous, or thought-provoking. To analyze the effect of an experience on you and why it has remained memorable. To relate what you learned from the experience about yourself, other people, or some aspect of life. To support a belief or viewpoint that the experience demonstrates (e.g. the value of hard work, the difficulty of working and going to school, how a teacher can make the difference between an interesting or boring class). During this unit, you will write narrative essays for a couple of different purposes to share with your classmates and instructor. You might start thinking of different experiences now that you might want to write about: past experiences that stand out in your mind and that might be of interest to others. Writing Process As you write your first narrative paper, you will use a writing process that is similar for most writers, both amateur and professional, that includes prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing your esssay. While all writers don’t follow the process in exactly the same way, and may combine and configure parts of the process differently, there are enough similarities about how people write to conclude that writing, at its best, is a process-oriented task that includes these steps: Prewriting: anything you do to prepare to write your paper: thinking about your topic, jotting down some ideas, considering your essay’s organization, deciding your writing purpose. Drafting: writing your essay for the first time – getting your ideas on paper - keeping in mind your prewriting thoughts. College Writing Skills 4 Revising: making any changes in your draft that will improve it: adding some detail, rewording some sentences, strengthening your ending. Editing: proofreading your paper for errors involving grammar, punctuation, or spelling and making any needed corrections. The main essay assignments in each un...
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