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Anatomy Notes.pdf - ● Anatomy: The study of ​structure​ of...

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Anatomy: The study ofstructureof the human bodyPhysiology: The study of bodyfunctionStructuresupportsfunctionThe Human body is made up of many levels:-Chemical Level: atoms form molecules-Cellular Levels: Cells and their functional subunits - basic unit of structure and function ina organism-Tissue levels: a group of cells performing a common functions (At least one more morecells)-Epithelial-Connective-Muscle-Nervous-Organ Level: a discrete structure made up of more than one tissue (2 or more tissuetypes)-Organ System: organs working together for a common purpose (Blood is a tissue, twoorgans in the cardiovascular system is the heart and the vessels)-Organismal level: the result of all simpler levels working in unisonSystemic vs Regional AnatomySystemic: Study of anatomy by systemRegional: Study of anatomy by region (Anterior/ventral) (Posterior/Dorsal)(Superior/Cranial) (Inferior/Caudal)-Axial Region: the main axis of the body-Head-Neck-Trunk-Thorax-Abdomen-Pelvis-Perineum-Appendicular: the limbs or appendages or extremities-Upper Limbs-Arm/Brachium-Forearm/Antebrachium-Hand/Manus-Thumb/Pollex-Lower limbs-Thigh/Femoral-Shin/Crural-Foot/Pedal-Big Toe/HalluxFrontal, Medial, Transverse/ Cross Section
Parasagittal: A little right or left of the midline.Metric System:-Micrometer: microns: 1/1,000,000-Nanometre: Nm: 1/1,000,000,000Body Cavity: Dorsal and VentralDorsal:-Cranial-VertebralVentral:~ Thoracic:-Two lateral Parts each containing a lung surrounded by pleural cavity-Central Mediastinum: contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial cavity-Superior Mediastinum: parts of the esophagus and trachea~ Abdominopelvic Cavity:-Abdominal Cavity: liver, stomach, kidneys and other organs-Pelvic Cavity: Contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum (Coxel is hipbone)Visceral: organs that are contained within the body cavitySerous cavities—a slit-like space lined by a serous membrane-Pleura-Pericardium-PeritoneumSerous Membranes have two layers:-Parietal serosa—outer wall of the cavity-Visceral serosa covers the visceral organsMicroscopy—examining small structures through a microscope-Light microscopyilluminates tissue with a beam of light (lower magnification) .25 microns
-Electron microscopyuses beams of electrons (higher magnification)Eosin: Acidic StainHematoxylin: Basic StainHooke saw cells under a microscope out of a cork plantSchleiden and Schwann realized that all living organisms are made up of cellsVirchow found that cells could not come out of nothing, they had to come from an old cellCells are the smallest living units in our bodies-Organelles “Little Organs” carry on essential functions of cellsCells are made up of 3 main components:-Plasma membrane- the outer boundary-Cytoplasm- contains most organelles (the bulk of the cell)-Nucleus- controls cellular activities (proteins are made of amino acids, and the nucleushas the message to make up the amino acids which is a protein that controls the cellularactivities)The Plasma Membrane: Defines the extent of the cell

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Term
Spring
Professor
Poi See Chan
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