121_review_1 - AOS 121 Fall 2007 Environment and Society...

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AOS 121 Fall 2007 Environment and Society Cross-listed with IES and Geography Review for the 1st midterm exam 10/01/2007
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1st midterm: Wednesday (Oct. 3, in class) Grading will be based on two mid-terms ( 30% each ) and one final ( 40% ). The exams will be in multiple choice formats . Main emphasis of the exams will be to test your understanding of the subjects. The final grade is determined by the distribution of the final total scores (not the average of the three exam grades). Grading Exam time is 1:20pm~2:10pm (50 minutes) Closed book exam 30~40 multiple choice questions
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Please bring your # 2 pencil and eraser Use # 2 pencil only
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CH 01 "The Milky Way Galaxy, Solar System, and Earth’s Subsystems" CH 02 "The Physical and Chemical Structure of The Atmosphere" CH 03 "Evolution of the Atmosphere"
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On August 24, 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) formally downgraded Pluto from an official planet to a dwarf planet .
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“Spheres” of the Earth System Atmosphere Hydrosphere (oceans, rivers, lakes, etc.) Biosphere (forests, grasslands, animals, algae, microbes, etc.) Cryosphere (mainly polar ice, glaciers) Pedosphere (soil layer) Lithosphere (rock layer) Mantle Core
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CH 01 "The Milky Way Galaxy, Solar System, and Earth’s Subsystems" CH 02 "The Physical and Chemical Structure of The Atmosphere" CH 03 "Evolution of the Atmosphere"
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Composition of the Atmosphere Permanent Constituents (residence time ~10 millions of years) ~ 78% of nitrogen (N 2 ) ~ 21% of oxygen (O 2 ) ~ 1% of argon (A) ~0.034% of CO 2 Other inert gases (e.g., helium (He), neon (Ne), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) Variable Constituents (residence time usually a few days to a few weeks) H 2 O and some trace gases (such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), etc. Aerosol particles - liquid droplets and solid particles Semi-permanent Constituents e.g., methane (CH 4 ), CO, H 2
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Atmospheric Pressure Most of the atmospheric gases have maximum concentration at the surface . The gas concentration usually decreases exponentially with height. But there are some exceptions (e.g., O 3 ). The atmospheric pressure also decreases exponentially upward. This is the so-called barometric law .
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In the general atmosphere, the gravitational force is about as strong as the vertical pressure gradient force , so the two basically cancel each other. This is called the hydrostatic balance . But this is
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121_review_1 - AOS 121 Fall 2007 Environment and Society...

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