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Unformatted text preview: History of Science Study Guide Alexandria- Was in Upper Egypt across the Mediterranean from Greece. Founded and named after Alexander the Great, Alexandria was one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world. Was home to many discussions and dissections on human anatomy and physiology. Was where Galen learned and carried out his dissections. Galen- Studied Medicine in Alexandria. Galen produced an enormous body of writings, the surviving portions of which occupy twenty two volumes in the standard nineteenth century edition. He believed that a general knowledge of the specific organs was necessary to diagnose disease. Was responsible for the information rebirthed during the renaissance by Vesalius on human anatomy/dissections. Pliny the Elder- Naturalist, natural philosopher, was well schooled in greek philosophy. Wrote Naturalis Historia or Natural History in Latin which he dedicated to Titus. Among the subjects treated were cosmology, astronomy, geography, anthropology, zoology, botany, and mineralogy. He basically wrote this book to portray the general ideas of the universe to people who were not really interested in knowing the mathematical data or in depth explanations of everything. Was the first to attempt to deal with the whole of the universe in a single work. Monasteries- Provided a retreat for Christians who wished to escape the world in the pursuit of holiness. After St. Benedict established the monastery at Monte Casino, the Benedictine rules were written to dictate all aspect of the life of the monk and nun, obliging them to devote the major share of their waking hours to worship, contemplation, and manual labor. Notes the falling off of greek natural philosophy, religion was now the core of learning. Benedictine Rule- The Benedictine Rule dictated all aspects of the life of the monk and nun, obliging them to devote the major share of their waking hours to worship, contemplation, and manual labor. St. Benedict said all monks had to know how to read or be literate, lead to the preservation of Greek Natural Philosophy. Helped to develop libraries. Charlemagne- Charles the Great. Made the first serious attempt to centralize the government in Western Europe since the disappearance of the Roman Empire. Charlemagne undertook educational reforms, importing scholars from abroad to staff a palace school and ordering the establishment of monastery and cathedral schools throughout the realm. Wanted to run a cultural city. Showed a revival of interest in classical legacy, said everyone should be literate, not just monks. Alcuin- Was persuaded by Charlemagne to come direct his educational enterprise. He created the palace school and drew upon Martianis Capelus encyclopedia to teach. He tought the 7 liberal arts consisting of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, dialect) and the quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music). Mandated with Charles the Great the establishment of cathedral and monastery schools, which contributed to a wider dissemination of education than the Latin West had seen for several centuries and laid a...
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