history of science review

history of science review - List of terms definition brief...

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List of terms definition, brief explanation of historical significance, specific example that illustrates knowledge of the term (for a person, an example of his ideas or works) **key phrases and vocab words are underlined** Ontology: the study of what is real, what really exists, the ultimate reality. The Milesians were the first to explore this philosophy Cosmology: what is the order of the world that really exists Epistemology: how we acquire knowledge and know that it is true. Comes from the Greek word “episteme” How do you know what you know Theory of knowledge Homer (8 th /7 th c. BCE): Homer was a person who we believe wrote Iliad and Odyssey , but we are unsure if he actually lived or if he wrote these poems, since his work was of the oral tradition. Homer’s archaic poetry is a primary source that provides us with insight into how the Ancient Greeks perceived the natural world. Their gods were personified (had person like feelings) to create rationales for natural events, and they were closely involved in human affairs. It is believed that he wrote: Iliad – about city of Troy and Trojan War Odyssey – about Odysseus and how it takes ten years for him to get home to native land Presocratics: the people that came before Socrates. This included the Milesians, Eleatics, Pluralists, Atomists, and Sophists. They posed new questions and answers. They contemplated natural phenomena and fundamental reality that was based on an orderly, predictable world that behaved according to natures. They made distinctions between the natural and supernatural. Posed new questions and answers Contemplated atural phenomena Exclude gods Orderly predictale world that behaved according to natures Distinction bt natural and supernatural Interest in fundamental reality Socrates: represents a shift in emphasis within Greek philosophy, away from cosmological concerns toward political and ethical matters Plato’s teacher Milesians (6 th c. BCE) : They were the first to pursue the philosophy of the ultimate reality (ontology) and origin of things, which they believed was one, materialist thing.
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This theory, monism, includes one possible explanation for everything in the natural world. They assigned divine characteristics to “air” and “water.” Their ideas were a generalization, reductionism, and impersonalization of the Homeric worldview, since their answers contained none of the personifications or deifications of nature. Thales – He attributed all natural events to water Anaximander – apeiron Anaximenes – air We only have third hand reports of their ideas, but because people reported on them, we know that they are important. Monism : The theological view of the Milesians, Atomists, and Eleatics. The ultimate reality is one material thing. This view was an impersonalization of the Homeric worldview – they transferred the attributes and characteristics of gods to an impersonal divine thing like air and water.
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