History Study Guide - History Study Guide Indus Valley 2500...

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History Study Guide 21/10/2007 22:26:00 Indus Valley  2500 BC to 1500 BC  The discovery of these two cities served first of all to extend the roots of  urban Indian civilization back at least a thousand years before the Aryan  invasions Neolithic cililiaztions all on rivers, agricultural cities Even though they predated the Aryans they had similar advancements minus  weaponry.  The cities found form this time had walls built around them as a form of  defense form attackers and floods.  Harappa and Mohenjo Daro  o Punjab to sind  o They may have had writing but it was probably pictographs  o There is no certainty about their central authority  May have been a theocracy  o They had long distance trade with Sumerian counterparts between  2300 and 2000 BC. The Indus merchants exported their surplus grain  to Sumeria.  This created further economic success o Advanced culturally and had a division of labor system o They spun cotton o Social stratification along with sophisticated engineering and had  domesticated animals.  Their socieity was heavily affected by floods due to monsoons Decaying phases of Indus civilization called the Jhukar and Jhangar cultures.  o It seems that Harappa sustained some cataclysmic blows, which left its  cities to squatters from neighboring villages. They were cruder and  simpler minded  We really don’t know much about this period 
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Maurya Empire 326 to 184 BC right after alxander the Greats invasion of the Indus.  Chandragupta was the founder of this dynasty that lasted for 140 years.  Unified north India The Arthashastra, a textbook in realpolitik that is reminiscent of Machiavelli’s  Prince, can’t be used as aprimary source of early Mauryan polity but it does  provide invaluable evidence concerning the practical operations as well as the  long range goals and ideals animating India’s king makers and kings for many  centuries.  o Ashoka followed his book Another text were ashoka’s inscriptions.  o They were built in the cities of his emire to portray strength and unity  and describe laws and moral advice and Ashoka’s movement to  Buddhism.  The Indian monarch shared 1/4 to  ½  of the value of all crops with his army of  spies, soliders, and civil bureaucrats.  This empire promoted warfare and spying and an authoritarian form of  government.  o Considering the size the empire was well organized. It was divided into  Janapada, or districts, each ruled by the emperor’s relatives and  trusted generals.  o Goernment heavily involved in business, owned major industries and  all mines. If a worker failed to reach goal they would be havily taxed as 
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