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Unformatted text preview: University of New Mexico UNM Digital Repository Special Education ETDs Education ETDs 9-1-2015 Reciprocal Relationships and Creative Expression in Literacy Learning: Ameliorating Disability Circumstances and Empowering Individuals Laurel Ann Lane Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Special Education and Teaching Commons Recommended Citation Lane, Laurel Ann. "Reciprocal Relationships and Creative Expression in Literacy Learning: Ameliorating Disability Circumstances and Empowering Individuals." (2015). This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Education ETDs at UNM Digital Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in Special Education ETDs by an authorized administrator of UNM Digital Repository. For more information, please contact [email protected] i Laurel Ann Lane Candidate Department of Educational Specialties Department This dissertation is approved, and it is acceptable in quality and form for publication: Approved by the Dissertation Committee: Elizabeth Keefe, Chairperson Ruth Luckasson Susan R. Copeland Linney Wix ii RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIPS AND CREATIVE EXPRESSION IN LITERACY LEARNING: AMELIORATING DISABILITY CIRCUMSTANCES BY EMPOWERING INDIVIDUALS by LAUREL ANN LANE B.A., Education, University of New Mexico, 2006 M.A., Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, University of New Mexico, 2009 DISSERTATION Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Special Education The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico July, 2015 iii DEDICATION I dedicate this work, and all the sleepless nights, the tears, and the seemingly endless hours of focused attention that went into its completion to my grandma, Eileen Ubert. Grandma, I credit you for nearly everything that is good, and strong about me. You always knew what to say, and when not to say anything at all—when your presence was enough. You were my enlightened witness and you left this world way too soon. I miss you every day. I hope you’re proud of me. Thank you, Grandma. I love you. I hope you and Grandpa are hanging out with James Garner in heaven. Until we meet again… iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge and thank my family members for allowing me to mine their memories for confirmation and elucidation about our life experiences, both individual and shared. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Elizabeth Keefe, Chair, Dr. Ruth Luckasson, Dr. Susan Copeland, and Dr. Linney Wix for their faith in my work that often went well beyond my own, for the wealth of knowledge they provided me during my doctoral journey, and for their support in all manner, concrete and intangible. Days spent in the Center for Southwest Research at Zimmerman Library on the campus of the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, were made not only fruitful in terms of my research, but enjoyable for the encouragement, assistance, good humor, and interest from the men and women who organize, maintain, retrieve, restock, and generally care for the archival collections that we are so fortunate to have available for our use as researchers. While the physical space of the Center for Southwest Research is a beautiful one within which to work, the real beauty of it comes from the people, and I hope to see more of them as I delve more deeply into the past in an effort to better understand how those who came before us can teach us in the present. Thank you: Samuel Sisneros, Chris Geherin, Nancy Brown-Martinez, Terry Gugliotta, Katherine Catanach, Sabrina Dominguez, Francesca Glaspell, Anna Kebler, Claudia Mitchell, and Moriah Montoya. You are all amazing. I am honored to know you, and hope to know you better. Finally, I would like to thank those people, both known and unknown to me, who fill roles as enlightened witnesses for children and adults who live now, or have at one time experienced the impacts of childhood trauma in any form. You save lives every day. v RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIPS AND CREATIVE EXPRESSION IN LITERACY LEARNING: AMELIORATING DISABILITY CIRCUMSTANCES AND EMPOWERING INDIVIDUALS by Laurel Ann Lane B.A., Education, University of New Mexico, 2006 M.A., Language, Literacy, & Sociocultural Studies, University of New Mexico, 2009 Submitted in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of: Doctor of Philosophy, Special Education, University of New Mexico, 2015 ABSTRACT Individuals engaged in the production of art, who are untrained, and marginalized by disability, are known as outsider or visionary artists. With them in mind I sought to better understand the relationship between art-making and meaning-making. Students with disability attributes in my classroom were motivated by arts-based activities, prompting me to include art in the content I taught. My own art-making grew out of those efforts, and in order to better understand how to implement my classroom practices, I began an autoethnographic study that evolved into phenomenology, positioning myself in the disability culture first, and then conducting an archival document search seeking evidence of the use of arts-based activities in teaching students with disabilities. I located extensive records on two community schools in Depression-era New Mexico. The schools were progressivist experiments in curricular reform initially focused on bilingual education. Art projects and lesson plans included in teacher diaries spanned seven years, evidencing reciprocal relationships, along with focus on creative expression as central in the culturally-based literacy pedagogy of the reforms being implemented. Contextually, this work is grounded primarily within the ideologies of John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. vi Data were collected and reported using narrative storytelling, observations, and reflections, personal art making, and archival document searches with research journaling. This research contributes to evolving perceptions about the value of reciprocal relationships in literacy pedagogy, and suggests the need to expand scholarship regarding engagement in arts-based activities with persons with disabilities, and the community school as a means to reach underserved populations. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter One: A Context for Art, Literacy, and Disability in Society ……………….1 Disability’s Presence ……………………………………………………………….....1 A Definition of Literacy ……………………………………..……………………..…8 An Expanded View of Both Literacy and Art …………………………………….....12 Two Divergent Examples of Literacy ……………………………………………......17 An Introduction to Art as Language—Archetypes, Icons, and Semiotics …………...21 Chapter Two: A Review of the Literature in Three Sections ……………………… 25 How the Art of Persons with Disabilities has been Characterized Historically ……..25 Overview of this section ….……………………………………………………. 25 Research approaches specific to this research Problem ………………………....31 Early perceptions of disability and mental illness …..…………………………..36 The self-taught artist with disabilities ………………………..………………....44 Early interest in the therapeutic context of untrained artists …………………... 45 The “art of the insane” ……………..…….……………………………………..47 Aesthetics and the self-taught artist …..….……………………………………..60 American folk art ……………………………………………………………….60 Dubuffet’s Art Brut ……………………………………………………………..62 Outsider Art: The birth of a name ……………………………………………...67 Names of repute within the world of outsider art …….………………………...71 Adolf Wölfli (1864 – 1930) ….……………………………………………….72 Madge Gill (1882 – 1961) ……………………………………………………...78 Martín Ramirez (1895 – 1963) ………………………………………………....81 viii Anthony Mannix (1953 - ) …………………………………………………….84 Implications for future conceptualizations of outsider art ………….………….85 Dubious pronouncements and blatant misconceptions about outsider art(ists) ..88 A final word on “the outsider” …...................................................... …………..91 Art making beyond the outsider artist label …….…………………. …………..92 Breaking through antiquated perceptions of art and disability …,……………..92 In school ………………………………………………………………………..94 Within the community ….……………………………………………………...100 Hybrids of hope ………………….……………………………………………103 The role of aesthetic empathy in a new characterization of art and disability ..105 Relationships between Art Making and Literacy for Adolescents and Adults with Disabilities in School and Community Settings …………………………....108 Overview ….…………………………………………………………………..108 Research approaches specific to this section ………………………………….115 Results, implications, and limitations ….……..……………………………….117 Art making, literacy, and persons with disabilities: correlational frameworks …..………………………………………..…………………….118 McLeod and Ricketts (2013) …………………………………………………..119 Sagan (2007) …………………………………………………………………..121 Sagan (2008) …………………………………………………………………..124 Sagan (2011) …………………………………………………………………..126 Culminating discussion for this subgroup …………………………………….128 Art making and adolescents and adults with disabilities ……...........................130 ix Grocke et al. (2009) …………………………………………………………...130 Hall (2013) ……………………………………………………………………132 Hermon and Prentice (2003) …………… …………………………................134 Huet (2011) …………………………………………………………………....136 Joosa (2012) …………………………………………………………………..138 Kidd (2009) …………………………………………………………………....140 Miller et al. (1998) …………………………………………………………….142 Sinason (2007) ………………………………………………………………...144 Stronach-Buschel (1990) ……………………………………………………...146 Wexler (2002) …………………………..…………………………..................148 Culminating discussion for this subgroup …………………………………….151 A final note on art making and resiliency ……………………………………..153 Literacy development and adolescents and adults with disabilities …………..154 Curwood et al. (2013) …………………………..……………………………..155 Fisher and Lapp (2013) …………………………………….............................157 Lacey et al. (2007) ………………………………………………………….....159 Parker (2013) ……………………………………………….............................161 Roswell and Kendrick (2013) ………………………………………………....163 Culminating discussion relevant to this subgroup ............................................165 Synthesis and discussion for this section …….…………………………….....166 Summary and conclusions for this section ….………………………………...171 Visual Art as Language and Literacy ……….………………..................................173 Overview …………………………………………….………………………..173 x Research approaches specific to this section ……….………………………....175 Art as language ………………….……………………….…............................177 Art as central to the school and community ………..………............................180 Visual art in the classroom …………………………………………………....184 Johnson (2008) ………………………………………………………………..184 Towell and Smilan (2009) ………………………………………………….....187 Lazo and Smith (2014) ………………………………………………………..191 Stewart and Katter (2010) …………………………………………………....197 Visual art as a mechanism for survival and healing ……………………….....200 Summary and conclusion for art as language and literacy …………………...206 Chapter Three: Methodology …..……………..………………………….…….......208 Proposed Research Questions ……………………………………………….….....208 Conceptual Framework ………….………………………………………………...208 Theorists within my conceptual framework ……………………………….....208 John Dewey (1859 – 1952) …………………………………………………...209 Dewey’s theories about education, generally ...................................................209 Dewey’s theories specific to art and education ……………………………....210 Paolo Freire (1921 – 1997) …………………………………………………..212 Michel Foucault (1926 – 1984) ……………………………………………....213 Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) ……………………………………………….....214 Methodology ..…………………………………………………………………….216 Phenomenology as a philosophy ……………………………………………..217 Phenomenological research ………………………………………………......218 xi Hybrids of phenomenological research ……………………………………....223 Archival document searches and research journaling in this phenomenological piece …………………………………………………....224 Autoethnographical Research ……………………………………………......233 Participants …………………………………………………………………..237 Settings …………………………………………………………………….....237 Data collection and reporting strategies ….………………………………....237 Pre-research data collection ………………………………………………...238 Narrative Storytelling ......................................................................................240 The parallels between autoethnography and phenomenology ……………....243 Personal artwork and the artwork of others ………..…………………….....244 Data analysis and interpretation strategies ………………………………......246 Research questions …………………………………………………………..250 Chapter Four: Narrative Discussion and Results ……….……………….............251 My Experience …………………………………………………………………...251 Becoming a teacher: the impetus for this research ….………………………252 Teacher as student ………………….…………………………………….....256 Seeking my place ……………………………………………………………258 The Archival Component ……………………………………………………......259 The collection known as the Nambé Community School Teachers’ Diaries ………………………………………………………………….....262 Loyd S. Tireman ………………………………………………………….....264 The beginning of Dr. Tireman’s efforts in educational reform ………….....267 xii The community school as envisioned by Loyd S. Tireman …………………276 Data from San José Training School with Autoethnographic Interweavings …..280 The demise of San José Training School …………………………………..326 Data from Nambé Community School with Autoethnographic Interweavings ………………………………………………………….....330 The village of Nambé and the Nambé Community School ………………..331 The diaries of Mary Watson …………………………………….................339 The diaries, generally ……………………………………………………...347 The curriculum and objectives for Nambé Community School …………...349 The data for NCS …………………………………………………………..356 A note about the tests ………………………………………………………390 The end of the era of Nambé Community School …………………………393 If my family had been provided “an NCS experience” ……………………396 Chapter Five: Analysis of Patterns and Themes ………………..……………..399 Relationships …………………………………………………………………...400 Creative Expression …………………………………………………………....404 Literacy ………………………………………………………………………...411 Summary for this Analysis of Patterns and Themes …………………………..417 Chapter Six: Conclusions, Limitations, and Implications …………………….419 Coming back around full circle ……………………………………….......427 Implications ……………………………………………………………….431 What is the end goal, really? ……………………………………………...438 xiii References …………………………………………….………………………….439 Appendices ……………………………………………………………………….457 Appendix A: Photo and Illustration Credits ………………..…………………457 Appendix B: Table 1, Studies, Participants and Settings, Designs, and Brief Study Descriptions ……………………………………………………...463 1 Reciprocal Relationships and Creative Expression in Literacy Learning: Ameliorating Disability Circumstances by Empowering Individuals Chapter One: A Context for Art, Literacy, and Disability in Society Disability’s Presence A 1991 Institute of Medicine federal health survey found that approximately one in seven Americans lives with disabilities severe enough “to interfere with daily activities like work or keeping house” (Shapiro, 1993, p. 6). These disabilities are inclusive of physical, mental, and emotional types. Disabilities encompassing mental and emotional disorders are often co-occurring with issues of substance abuse, and depression and anxiety are nearly always co-occurring for people living with long-term, chronic physical disabilities. Smith (1997), used figures from The National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD), and cited the following: In any six-month period, one in every five adult Americans, more than 30 million people, suffers from a diagnosable mental disorder. More than 17 million Americans suffer from severe mental illness, including more than seven million children and adolescents. A fourth of all hospital beds in this country are occupied by people with mental illness – more than those occupied by patients with heart disease, cancer and respiratory illness combined. Thirty-five percent of homeless people are mentally ill, suffering primarily from schizophrenia or depression. As well, Smith stated that every 15 minutes, an American commits suicide. 2 While these figures are stunning, Shapiro noted that exact numbers are difficult to ascertain because there is not one concise definition as to what constitutes disability; therefore, the numbers vary greatly from state to state due to definitive variations. It is a sad truth that persons with disabilities have been marginalized, stigmatized, and subjected to unorthodox, even dangerous medical procedures-- e.g., the “icepick lobotomy” popular in the 1940s and 1950s in which the frontal lobe was mutilated by entry through the eye socket with an ice pick to the extent that many patients had to be taught to eat and use the bathroom again, if they survived (Dully, 2007). Of course, institutionalization was often a first choice for persons with any manner of disability, physical, or mental, if for no other reason than society’s refusal to accommodate individual needs—hence the references to the invisibility of disability. More recent information compiled from The National Survey on Drug Use and Health, commonly referenced as The NSDUH Report, published periodically by the federal Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) indicated the following: In 2004 and 2005 nearly eight percent of adults between the ages of 18 and 64 experienced a major depressive episode (MDE) in the previous year. (MDE “specifies a period of 2 weeks or longer in which there is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure and at least four other symptoms that reflect a change in functioning, such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and self-image.”) (Co-Occurring MDE, February 16, 2007). 3 Over two million adolescents, representing roughly 9 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2005, experienced at least one MDE in the previous year (Depression Among Adolescents, December 30, 2005). An NSDUH Report on adults with co-occurring serious mental illness and a substance use disorder found that as of 2002, more than half of all adults diagnosed with a mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse issues received neither treatment for the mental illness, nor for the substance abuse (Adults with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness, June 23, 2004). Additionally, the Drug and Alcohol Services Information System, commonly, The DASIS Report, and published periodically by SAMHSA, has statistics specific to adolescents: Co-occurring psychiatric disorders were found to be present in 38 percent of female admissions and 28 percent of male admissions. Three-fourths of adolescents admitted for psychiatric treatment of cooccurring disorders were white as compared to just over one-half for other races and ethnicities. Most referrals for admissions for adolescents with (48 percent) and without (57 percent) co-occurring disorders come from the criminal justice system. (Adolescents with Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disorders, December 23, 2005). Both SAMHSA and Whiffen and Demidenko (2006) cited a prevalence for female mood disturbances—including, depression, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and phobias—as being between two and three times higher than for males. 4 In public schools, segregation of children with disabilities represents the origins of least restrictive environment (LRE) (Moores, 2010; Rueda, Gallego, & Moll, 2000; Shapiro, 1993; Villa & Thousand, 2000). LRE is understood generally to be the placement of children with disabilities alongside their nondisabled peers in the education setting, to the largest extent possible, in order for the child to make appropriate educational gains. LRE is a term that is frequently used in conjunction with inclusion, and mainstreaming (Moores, 2010; Semsch, 2011b). What of adults with disabilities? While laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) are in effect, and have as a critical objective, the prevention of discriminat...
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