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History Midterm Questions1. What goals did Republican policymakers, ex-Confederates, and freedpeople pursue during Reconstruction” To what degree the each succeed or fail?Republican PolicymakersI)GoalsA)Increase political power in the south via building a constituencyB)Improve quality of life for african americansII)Building a constituency -> FailureA)wanted to build a voter base out of black votersi) Reconstruction Act of 1867a) granted freedmen right to vote, while removing ex-Confederates from the voter poolii) 15th amendmentb) 15th = can’t discriminate voters based on “race, color, and previous state of servitude”c) failure due to loopholes (Ie poll tax and literacy tests)B)Redeemers retake the southi) from 1873 - 1875, Republican governments were overthrown in the states of Texas, Alabama, and Arkansasii) armed Democrats paraded the streets and stuffed ballot boxes in Missisipi (1875)C) Success / Faili) overall a fail, Republicans were unable to create a constituency in the south, and due to loopholes the lives of blacks can be argued as being worse than that of what they started with.III) Improve quality of life for freedmenA)Freedmen's Bureau (Founded 1865)i) received direct federal funding in 1866ii)Bureau agents tasked w/ investigating southern abusesB)Civil RIghts Act of 1866i)Declared that freedmen were citizens, and thus receive equal protection, and the right of contract and to the courtsC)14th Amendmenti)response to Black codesii)naturalized freedmen, and declared them as equals to other citizensiii)Made an amendment so that it would be harder for individual states to infringe on peoples rights (Federal gov’t > State gov’t )D) Success / Faili)Short term success, once military occupation of the south was over, states went back to white ruleEx-ConfederatesI)GoalsA)Return the south to its Antebellum era level of ProsperityB)Deprive African Americans of their rightsII)???A)Black Codes (1865)
i)blacks were still viewed as inferior and a free source of labor; black codes formedto force freedmen back onto plantationsii)this reflected the economic interests of southern plantation owners, who lost a great deal of laboriii)failure due to Civil RIghts Act of 1866 and the 14th amendmenta)CRA -> protected Freedmen from Black codesb)14th -> gave Freedmen right to vote; naturalized themB)Sharecroppingi)effectively slaveryii)Freedmen would lease land from their old masters to worka) percentage was to be paid to landowners, tenant kept the restiii)unfair due toa) Freedmen were rented tools, sold seeds and fertilizers at exorbitant pricesb) many times masters and storekeepers would work together to keep tenants inperpetual debtiv) 3 of every 4 freedmen were share croppersFreedmenI)GoalsA)Gain civil and Political rightsB)Own land and be economically self sufficientII)Civil rightsA) In 1875, over 50% of black children attended school in the states of Florida, Mississippi, and South CarolinaB)protection from black codes( CRA 1866)C)Failurei)KKK targeted freedmen