General Anesthesia Fall 2018(3).pdf - Tracy Womble Ph.D Florida A&M University College of Pharmacy and Phamaceutical Sciences General Anesthetics

General Anesthesia Fall 2018(3).pdf - Tracy Womble Ph.D...

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General Anesthetics Tracy Womble, Ph.D Florida A&M University, College of Pharmacy and Phamaceutical Sciences
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Objectives ▪ Historical Perspective ▪ Definition of General Anesthetics ▪ What is anesthesia ▪ Differentiate sleep, amnesia, analgesia, general anesthesia ▪ List different stages/depths of GA ▪ Classify the agents used for general anesthesia ▪ Describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, therapeutics and adverse effects and drug interactions of different anesthetic drugs
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Historical Perspective ▪ General anesthesia was absent until the mid-1800’s ▪ William Morton administered ether to a patient having a neck tumor removed at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, in October 1846. ▪ The discovery of the diethyl ether as general anesthesia was the result of a search for means of eliminating a patient’s pain perception and responses to painful stimuli . Ether no longer used in modern practice, yet considered to be the first “ideal” anesthetic (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 O
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Sleep, Amnesia, Analgesia, General Anesthetic ▪Sleep - a naturally recurring state of mind and body characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings, a decreased ability to react to stimuli. ▪Amnesia - the loss of memories, such as facts, information and experiences. ▪Analgesic – a class of drugs that are designed to relieve pain without causing the loss of consciousness. ▪General Anesthetic - A drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness for the purpose of inducing amnesia, analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation attenuation of autonomic responses to painful stimuli.
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General Anaesthetics (GA) unconsciousness amnesia analgesia A drug administered to a patient with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia and analgesia .
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What are General Anesthetics? ▪A drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness ▪generally administered by an anesthesiologist in order to induce or maintain general anesthesia to facilitate surgery. ▪reversible drug-induced loss of consciousness ▪depresses the nervous system resulting an induced anesthetic state ▪ a lack of awareness ▪ amnesia ▪ sedation and reduced anxiety, ▪ skeletal muscle relaxation ▪ suppression of undesirable reflexes
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General Anesthetics ▪ volatile and nonvolatile ▪ general anesthetics are used to induce analgesia, amnesia, loss of consciousness, and skeletal muscle relaxation during surgical procedures ▪ usually anesthesia is accomplished by; ▪ preoperative ▪ benzodiazepine (BDZs) ▪ Induction anesthesia by an i.v. agent ▪ thiopental (pentothal), midazolam (versed), propofol (diprivan) fentanyl (sublimaze) ▪ produce rapid and smoother transition into anesthesia compared to inhaled agents ▪ maintenance of anesthesia by a combination of inhaled and i.v.
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