Sohaib Sultan Education Complete Thesis Pdf.pdf - 1 Developing Teacher Training Curricula to Promote Ecological Awareness at Tertiary Education By

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Developing Teacher Training Curricula to Promote Ecological Awareness at Tertiary Education By Sohaib Sultan NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES ISLAMABAD February-2015 2 Developing Teacher Training Curricula to Promote Ecological Awareness at Tertiary Education By Sohaib Sultan M.A., E.P.M., NUML, 2008. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Education) To FACULTY OF HIGHER STUDIES NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES, ISLAMABAD Sohaib Sultan Sohaib Sultan 2015 3 NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES FACULTY OF Higher STUDIES THESIS AND DEFENSE APPROVAL FORM The undersigned certify that they have read the following thesis, examined the defence, are satisfied with the overall exam performance, and recommend the thesis to the Faculty of Higher Studies for acceptance: Thesis Title: Developing Teacher Training Curricula to Promote Ecological Awareness at Tertiary Education Submitted By: Sohaib Sultan Registration #: 388-M.Phil/Edu/Jan09-10 Name of Student Doctor of Philosophy Education Dr. Muhammad Farooq Khan Lodhi Name of Research Supervisor Signature of Research Supervisor Dr. Shazra Munnawer ______________________________ Name of Dean (FHS) Signature of Dean (FHS) Maj. Gen. Zia Uddin Najam HI(M) (R) Name of Rector ______________________________ ______________________________ Signature of Rector _______________________ Date CANDIDATE DECLARATION FORM 4 I Sohaib Sultan Son of Mehmood Sultan Registration # 388-M.Phil/Edu/Jan 09-10 Discipline Education Candidate of Doctor of Philosophy at the National University of Modern Languages do hereby declare that the thesis (Title) Developing Teacher Training Curricula to Promote Ecological Awareness at Tertiary Education submitted by me in partial fulfillment of PhD degree, is my original work, and has not been submitted or published earlier. I also solemnly declare that it shall not, in future, be submitted by me for obtaining any other degree from this or any other university or institution. I also understand that if evidence of plagiarism is found in my thesis/dissertation at any stage, even after the award of a degree, the work may be cancelled and the degree revoked. ______________________________ ______________ Signature of Candidate Date Sohaib Sultan Name of Candidate ABSTRACT 5 Thesis Title: Developing Teacher Training Curricula to Promote Ecological Awareness at Tertiary Education This research had been planned to develop the Teacher Training Curricula to respond to the society’s call to promote ecological Awareness at tertiary education. The aim was to help produce more knowledgeable, motivated and responsible teachers and active citizens through improved and sustainable teacher education. The researcher proposed to adopt the Curriculum Development route to secure this objective. The researcher had based his approach on a combination of a model presented by Hungerford and Volk (1990). In broad general terms the curriculum development task of this nature had adopted constructivist approach of learning theory. The research had undertaken the task of developing and proving a curriculum pertaining to one of the courses that may be taught as part of Teachers’ training curriculum. The course thus developed had been purpose-designed to enhance ecological awareness among trainee teachers. An Awareness scale had measured the pre-test and post-test levels of ecological awareness and relative gain had been used as an indicator of the success of the class experiment. The prosecution of central hypotheses had followed a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Curriculum development process had been guided by the following framework: (1) Review of Literature to establish the state of research on the subject, (2) content analysis of the prevailing curriculum in one of the ICT Teachers Training Institutes, (3) Development of the curriculum and the teaching contents/materials of one of the courses especially oriented to enhance ecological awareness in trainee teachers, (4) Class experiment, (5) assessment of gain, and (6) assessment of the success of the class experiment. The study had been significant in enhancing the effectiveness of teachers’ training curricula in promoting ecological concerns at tertiary level of education. It had been expected that trainee teachers made conscious of their environmental responsibilities would help educate our future generations along these lines and produce environmentally responsible citizens. This would in turn help achieve national agenda on environmental protection aimed at preventing further damage to environment and initiating a recovery. Key Words (1) Environmental Science, (2) Environmental Activism, (3) Environmental Advocacy, and (4) Environmental Justice TABLE OF CONTENTS 6 Chapter I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 II 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Page THESIS/DISSERTATION AND DEFENCE APPROVAL FORM CANDIDATE DECLARATION FORM ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………… TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………… LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………… ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………… ii iii iv v xiii xv INTRODUCTION Background of the study Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 1.2.1 A Constructivist Approach to Learning 1.2.2 Environmental Education and Responsible Environmental Behavior (REB) Research Questions: Statement of the Problem: Research Objectives: Research Hypotheses: Significance of the Study: Methodology 1.8.1 Research Design 1.8.2 Population 1.8.3 Sampling Technique 1.8.4 Sample 1.8.5 Instruments 1.8.6 Data Collection and Analysis 1.8.7 Delimitations of the study: 1 1 2 3 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction Environment 2.2.1 The Significance of Studies Toward Environmental Science 2.2.2 The Real Need for Acceptance and Implementation Environmental Science Environmentalism Environmentalism as a Social Movement Philosophical Discussions on Environmentalism 14 14 14 15 16 16 17 17 17 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 18 19 20 20 Environmental Awareness from Pragmatism Point of View Environmental Awareness from Realism Point of View Environmental Awareness from Metaphysic Point of View Environmental Awareness from Point of View of Axiology 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 12 13 13 7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.6.5 Environmental Awareness from Reflective Philosophy 2.6.6 Environmental Awareness from Idealism Point of View 2.6.7 Environmental Awareness from Islamic Point of View History of Conservation and Environmentalism 2.7.1 Historic roots of nature protection 2.7.2 Pragmatic Resource Conservation Origins of the Modern Environmental Movement 2.8.1 Global Concerns 2.8.2 Earth: A Marvelous Planet in Solar System 2.8.3 Environmental dilemmas 2.8.4 Climatic Change and Environment 2.8.5 Signs of hope Evangelical Environmentalism Preservation and Conservation Environmental Organizations and Conferences Environmental Education Philosophy in Educational System Educational Measures to Overcome Environmental Problems Importance of Environmental Awareness in Education Teaching Environmental Education Material Development for Developing Environmental Awareness Teaching Environmental Protection in our Classrooms Content Centered Learning Approach Environmental Education Context The Sources of Materials for Environmental Education Ecological awareness defined Factor effecting ecological awareness in Pakistan 2.22.1 Lack of awareness 2.22.2 Unavailability of Curriculum Related to Environmental Issues at Primary Secondary Level of Education 2.22.3 Teacher training Programs do not have the Elements of Environmental Education Contributions of UNESCO to develop environmental education curriculum The Goal of Environmental Education by United Nation: Core Issues in Environmental Education: The Issues which are discussed generally in every International, National and Local Settings in Curriculum 2.25.1 A divided world: rich/poor: 2.25.1.1 Human development index: HDI 2.25.1.2 A fair share of resources: 2.25.1.3 ECONOMIC PROGRESS: 2.25.1.4 Sustainable Development: 2.25.1.5 Environmental Justice: 2.25.2 MATERIAL CYCLES AND LIFE PROCESSES: 21 22 22 24 25 26 27 31 32 32 34 35 36 36 37 38 39 43 45 47 49 49 50 51 52 52 52 52 52 53 56 58 58 59 60 61 61 62 62 8 2.25.3 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND TROPHIC LEVELS: 65 2.25.4 CLIMATE CHANGE 65 2.25.5 GLOBAL WARMING 67 2.25.6 Animal Life: Need safe and healthy environment to survive 68 2.25.6.1 Reduction Bird Species: A Complex Phenomenon 69 2.25.7 Over Population: A burning issue globally particularly in developing countries 70 2.25.8 Pollution: Issue that requires attention of general public in their daily life actions 71 2.25.8.1 Air pollution: 73 2.25.8.2 Dust domes and heat islands: 75 2.25.9 Waste Management: Issue that is ignored particularly in developing countries largely 76 2.25.10 Developing Civic Sense: Urgent need of Pakistani Society 78 2.25.11 Resource Depletion: An alarming indicator of present era especially in developing countries 80 2.25.11.1 Chronic hunger and food security: 82 2.25.11.2 Land degradation: 82 2.25.12 Environmental Health and Toxicology: 83 2.25.13 Water Reservoirs: Urgently need attention in Pakistani society 84 2.25.13.1 Water Pollution: 86 2.25.14 Plants: Their presence ensure healthy environment 87 2.25.15 Public Health Issues: Emergency is needed to address issue in Pakistani community 88 Effects of human activities on environment 90 Analysis of the researches done in the area of environmental education 91 Valuable Research work done in the area of Environmental Education to develop Environmental Awareness 92 Environment and Energy study published in 1991 flourished different outcomes for sustainable development globally 99 Contribution by United National world commission on environment and development (WCED) 101 Contribution by UNESCO for Sustainable Development 101 The Global Tomorrow Coalition 1989: A Landmark towards raising Environmental Awareness Globally 102 Skilled and Environmental Dedicated Citizens: A revolutionary perspective of UNESCO 103 The support of thinkers of Environmental Education on its inclusion in the curriculum in multiple ways to develop impacts of Ecological Awareness in the society 104 Developing sense of empowerment and ownership among 9 citizens on Ecological Issues: A UNESCO perspective 2.36 Developing dynamic equilibrium between the quality of life and quality of the environment: The ultimate aim of Environmental Education by UNESCO 2.37 The basic principles determined for the development of curriculum under the umbrella of UNESCO on curricular concerns of Environmental Education 2.38 Need to Develop Environmental Awareness among middle and high school learners: A potent perspective by Environmentalists 2.39. Teaching Techniques Helpful To Deal With Environmental Issues at Tertiary Level of Education to develop in depth Environmental Awareness among potential teachers 2.39.1 The Case Study Approach: A research oriented skill to develop in depth knowledge 2.39.2 The Investigation Skill Approach: Innovative methodology to develop skills among learners at tertiary level education 2.39.3 Using Community Resources to Develop Ecological Awareness: Research oriented approach to strengthen concepts of learners 2.39.4 Field Trips: Important to enhance motivation among learners 2.39.5 Using Role Playing and Simulations: Modern technique to make ideas of learners strong and logical 2.39.6 Discussion Method: A traditional approach to upgrade learners’ skills 2.40 Working locally for environmental protection: 2.41 Environmental Policy: 2.41.1 The policy cycle: 2.41.2 Environmental Rights: 2.41.3 American environmental policy: 2.42 Collective action for environmentalism: 2.42.1 Student environmental groups: 105 III 3.1 3.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY The Research Model and Approach 3.2.1 Qualitative-Descriptive Research 3.2.2 Quantitative Descriptive Research 3.2.3 Experimental Research 122 122 124 124 125 125 3.2.4 Applied Research 3.2.5 Action Research based on Systems Approach 3.2.6 Feasibility of Action Research in Tertiary Education 3.2.7 The attitude of Learners towards present Research 127 128 128 129 107 108 111 112 112 112 113 114 114 115 116 117 117 118 119 120 120 10 3.2.8 3.3. 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 Assessment of prevailing situations regarding teaching of Environmental Awareness at Tertiary Level of Education 3.2.9 Approaching the contents through Global/ Local setting Academic Interventions Designing Environmental Awareness Curriculum: Development of modules Action Research Tasks Challenges in controlling the variables: Organizing Knowledge for Teaching in the Classroom Developing Analytical Skills among learners Conduct of Experiment Population of the Study Sample of the Study Contents of the Study Conduct of the Treatment Research Design The Instrument: Approach to the Conduct of Experiment Controlled Variables 3.18.1 Independent variables 3.18.2 Dependent Variables: Uncontrolled Variables 3.19.1 Uneven Educational Background 3.19.2 Concept of Self efficacy of Individual Students 3.19.3 Intensity of exposure: 3.19.4 Associational Learning: 3.19.5 Exposure to Media and Internet Statistical Treatment 3.20.1 Comparison of Means of Raw Scores Analysis of Responsible Environmental Behaviour Reliability Test Inferences from Data Developed Modules Taught in Class Trial IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Quantitative Data Analysis Bench: 4.2.1: Raw Scores (Pre Test) Control Group & Experimental Group Discussion Bench 4.2.2: Raw Scores (Post Test)Control Group and Experimental Group Discussion Bench: 4.2.3: Raw Scores (Pre Test and Post Test) Experimental Group Discussion Bench: 4.2.4: Raw Scores (Pre Test and Post Test) Control Group 129 130 131 132 132 133 134 135 135 137 137 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 145 145 146 146 146 148 150 152 153 201 201 203 203 205 205 207 209 210 212 11 Discussion Bench 4.2.5: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Fundamental Concepts & Definitions of Ecological Terms Discussion Bench 4.2.6: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Water Pollution Discussion Bench 4.2.7: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Air Pollution Discussion Bench 4.2.8: Raw Scores(Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Deforestation, Water Management and Waste Management Discussion Bench 4.2.9: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Agriculture and Biodiversity Discussion Bench 4.2.10: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Population cum Urbanization Discussion Bench 4.2.11: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Ecological Cycles Discussion Bench 4.2.12: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Food Management, Hunger and Rights of Native People Discussion Bench 4.2.13: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Policy Management for Environmental Protection Discussion Bench 4.2.14: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Effects of Industrialization Discussion Bench 4.2.15: Raw Scores (Post Test) Control Group & Experimental Group: Wild Life Protection Discussion 4.3 Prosecution of Hypotheses in the light of Inferences from Bench 4.2.1 to Bench 4.2.15 4.3.1 Hypothesis#1: 4.3.2 Hypothesis#2: 4.3.3 Hypothesis#3: 4.3.4 Hypothesis#4: 4.4 Qualitative Data Analysis 4.4.1: Environmental sensitively as an agent/ method to invoke quest for in depth knowledge relating to environmental issues 4.4.2: Knowledge of consequences of behaviour (both negative 213 214 216 218 220 221 223 225 227 228 230 232 234 235 237 239 241 242 244 246 248 249 251 253 253 254 255 256 257 257 12 4.5 V and positive) lead to a personal commitment to issue resolution 4.4.3: Knowledge of and skills in using environment action strategies as essential agenda for modification of behavior 4.4.4: Personal investment and sense of ownership in projects related to environmental issues increase the quality of behaviour modification? 4.4.5: Environmental education contributes to sustainable development of society 4.4.6: Greater ecological awareness enhances quality of life in Pakistani society 4.4.7: Identifying the agents of change in creating greater ecological awareness in society 4.4.8: Formal education can be a potent source of developing ecological awareness in society 4.4.9: Measures to enhance ecological awareness of trainee teachers will contribute to enhancement of ecological awareness amongst masses 4.4.10: Enhancing ecological awareness of trainee teachers would lead to enhancement in the quality of life in Pakistan 4.4.11: Participation of community be greatly enhanced by introducing ecological awareness in teacher training curricula and in school curricula 4.4.12: Inclusion of ecological agenda in teachers’ training institutes curricula 4.4.13: Teacher’s training institutes must develop adequate curricular contents 4.4.14: Identification of emerging ecological issues in Pakistan 4.4.15: Contents required to be developed towards ecological awareness in Pakistan 4.4.16: Contents and strategies required to be developed towards ecological awareness of trainee teachers as part of B.Ed. and M.Ed. level of education 4.4.17: Need to design separate courses to develop ecological awareness among students of various levels 4.4.18: Availability of subject specialists/ instructors to teach ecological-awareness-related courses to students at various levels 4.4.19: Workshops/ seminars/ conferees to provide awareness on ecological issues at schools, colleges and university levels 4.4.20: Effectiveness of awareness development programs Reliability of the Questionnaire 4.5.1 Validity of the Questionnaire SUMMARY, INFERENCES, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 13 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 SUMMARY INFERENCES 5.2.1 Inferences drawn from Quantitative Data Analysis 5.2.2 Inferences drawn from Qualitative Data Analysis 5.2.3 Classroom Experience CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES 279 283 283 288 293 299 302 305 14 LIST OF TABLES Table 4.2.1: Table 4.2.2: Table 4.2.3: Table 4.2.4: Table 4.2.5: Table 4.2.6: Table 4.2.7: Table 4.2.8: Table 4.2.9: Table 4.2.10: Table 4.2.11: Table 4.2.12: Table 4.2.13: Table 4.2.14: Table 4.2.15: Comparison of performance of Experimental Group and Control Group in Pre Test before treatment Overall performance in the Post Test Comparison of performance of Experimental Group between Pre Test and Post Test Comparison of performance of Control Group in Pre Test and in Post Test after trial Performance of ‘would be teachers’ in the Post Test towards “basic concepts and definitions” Performance of ‘would be teachers’ in the Post Test towards burning Ecological issue “Water Pollution” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards sensitive Ecological issue “Air Pollution” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards “Deforestation, Water management and Waste management” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards sensitive “Agriculture and Biodiversity” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards “Population cum Urbanization” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards gigantic Ecological issue “Ecological cycles” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards “Food management, Hunger and Rights of Native people” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards “Policy Management for Environmental Protection” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards gigantic Ecological issue “Effects of Industrialization” Performance of ‘would b teachers’ in the Post Test towards gargantuan Environmental issue “Wild Life Protection” 208 210 213 216 218 ...
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