121-ch1-07 - Milky Way Galaxy-1 Milk? Vapor? Stars? Dusts?...

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Unformatted text preview: Milky Way Galaxy-1 Milk? Vapor? Stars? Dusts? A Typical Galaxy M31 in Andromeda--our neighbor galaxy (~ 2.3 M light years away) M31 Satellite galaxies Our own Milky Way Galaxy NASA computerrendered image from observational data How many galaxies are there in the universe? ~ hundreds, perhaps thousands, of billions Most dots of light in this picture are galaxies each containing ~100 billion stars like our sun. So where exactly are we? In the outskirt of the Milky Way galaxy We are somewhere here The (New) Solar System Aug 2006 8 planets, 3 dwarf planets, etc. The Solar System The Sun Our Energy Source Pluto recently downgraded to become a "dwarf planet" Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter Asteroids - Ida Mars A pale blue dot...Carl Sagan Earth rise Looking at the Earth from the Moon Earth from Space Ocean as seen by the International Space Station Getting closer Above Himalayas And closer... Mississippi Delta Hydrosphere Biosphere Cryosphere The Antarctic The Arctic Earth System Science Traditionally, there are many fields of studies related to the earth environment, for example: meteorology, geography, geology, oceanography, limnology, glaciology, forestry, soil science,... New point of view Each of these fields represents a part of the earth system science. Earth interior "Spheres" of the Earth System Atmosphere Hydrosphere (oceans, rivers, lakes, etc.) Biosphere (forests, grasslands, animals, algae, microbes, etc.) Cryosphere (mainly polar ice, glaciers) Pedosphere (soil layer) Lithosphere (rock layer) Mantle Core ...
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