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Unformatted text preview: RENEWABLES 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 2019 REN2 1 MEMBERS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS Africa Minigrid Developers Association (AMDA) Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE) American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE) Associação Portuguesa de Energias Renováveis (APREN) Association for Renewable Energy of Lusophone Countries (ALER) Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association (CREIA) Clean Energy Council (CEC) European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF) Global Off-Grid Lighting Association (GOGLA) Global Solar Council (GSC) Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) Indian Renewable Energy Federation (IREF) International Geothermal Association (IGA) International Hydropower Association (IHA) Renewable Energy Solutions for Africa (RES4Africa) World Bioenergy Association (WBA) World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) INTER-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) NGOS Association Africaine pour l'Electrification Rurale (Club-ER) CLASP Asian Development Bank (ADB) Clean Cooking Alliance (CCA) ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) Climate Action Network International (CAN-I) European Commission (EC) Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) Global Environment Facility (GEF) Energy Cities International Energy Agency (IEA) Fundación Energías Renovables (FER) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Global 100% Renewable Energy Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (GFSE) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE) Global Women's Network for the Energy Transition (GWNET) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, South Asia United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) World Bank (WB) Greenpeace International Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Jeunes Volontaires pour l'Environnement (JVE) Mali Folkecenter (MFC) Partnership for Sustainable Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT) Power for All Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) Renewable Energy Institute (REI) Solar Cookers International (SCI) 2 SCIENCE AND ACADEMIA GOVERNMENTS AEE - Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE INTEC) Fundación Bariloche (FB) International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) International Solar Energy Society (ISES) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Afghanistan Brazil Denmark Germany India Mexico Norway South Africa Spain United Arab Emirates United States of America World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE) World Future Council (WFC) World Resources Institute (WRI) World Wildlife Fund (WWF) MEMBERS AT LARGE Michael Eckhart Mohamed El-Ashry David Hales Kirsty Hamilton Peter Rae CHAIR EXECUTIVE SECRETARY Arthouros Zervos National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) Rana Adib REN21 COMMUNIT Y REN21 is an international policy network of experts from governments, inter-governmental organisations, industry associations, NGOs, and science and academia. It grows from year to year and represents an increasing diversity of sectors. REN21 provides a platform for this wide-ranging community to exchange information and ideas, to learn from each other and to collectively build the renewable energy future. This network enables the REN21 Secretariat to, among other activities, produce its annual flagship publication, the Renewables Global Status Report (GSR), making the report process a truly collaborative effort. REN21 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN THE GSR: Over 1,500 experts have contributed to the GSR since its start in 2005. 70% of these experts have participated in more than one GSR. INPUT FOR GSR 2019: On average, nearly Over 350 45% of the community consists of new experts each year. experts contributed to GSR 2019, working alongside an international authoring team and the REN21 Secretariat. of these were new experts. 60% 3 RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY NETWORK FOR THE 21 st CENTURY BUILDING THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE REN21 is an international policy network of passionate players dedicated to building a sustainable renewable energy future. This means… … having a clear vision: REN21 stands for a renewables-based energy system that includes all renewable energy technologies and serves all energy end-use sectors. … making the right decisions: REN21 provides high-quality, up-to-date information to shape the energy debate. … telling a compelling story: REN21 consolidates information about what is happening across the energy landscape to show that the global transition to renewables can happen. ... inspiring and mobilising people: REN21 builds on a worldwide community of players from governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations, industry, science and academia. … moving beyond the familiar: REN21 makes renewable energy relevant to decision makers outside the energy world, by developing an understanding of relevant concerns in these sectors. Making the invisible visible. REN21 changes the way we think about renewable energy. SHAPE THE FUTURE 4 RENEWABLES 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT KNOWLEDGE DEBATES RENEWABLES GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (GSR) First released in 2005, this report is the industry standard for the status of renewables for a given year. The GSR’s robust process for collecting data and information makes it the most frequently referenced report on renewable energy market, industry and policy trends. RENEWABLE IN CITIES – GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (REC-GSR) The cities report is the first comprehensive resource to map out the current trends and renewable energy developments in cities. It uses the same rigorous standards found in the Renewables Global Status Report series. REN21 RENEWABLES ACADEMY A biennial event developed by, and for, the REN21 community, where members meet and discuss how to spur the renewable energy transition. The REN21 Academy’s structure reflects REN21’s collaborative and transparent culture. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT Y NCY NETWORK AND COMMUNIT Y SADC RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFIENCY STATUS REPORT 2018 RT 978-3-9818911-4-0 2018 REN21 c/o UN Environment 1, rue Miollis Building VII 75015 Paris France REGIONAL REPORTS These reports detail renewable energy developments in a region, improving data and knowledge and, in turn, informing decision making and changing perceptions. INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CONFERENCE (IREC) Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition A high-level political event where government, private sector and civil society meet to build collective know-how to advance renewables at the international, national and sub-national levels. The IREC is hosted by a national government and is held biennially. Renewable Energy GLOBAL FUTURES REPORT (GFR) This series captures the current thinking about a sustainable energy future. Each report presents the collective and contemporary thinking of many experts. THEMATIC REPORTS Each report covers, in detail, a specific topic where a knowledge gap exists. 5 RENEWABLES 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS GSR 2019 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Renewable Energy Indicators 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Top 5 Countries 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 01 GLOBAL OVERVIEW 29 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 02 POLICY LANDSCAPE 49 Targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 REPORT CITATION REN21. 2019. Renewables 2019 Global Status Report Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 (Paris: REN21 Secretariat). Policies to Integrate Variable Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . . . 62 ISBN 978-3-9818911-7-1 Climate Policy and Renewables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 DISCLAIMER: REN21 releases issue papers and reports to emphasise the importance of renewable energy and to generate discussion on issues central to the promotion of renewable energy. While REN21 papers and reports have benefited from the considerations and input from the REN21 community, they do not necessarily represent a consensus among network participants on any given point. Although the information given in this report is the best available to the authors at the time, REN21 and its participants cannot be held liable for its accuracy and correctness. The designations employed and the presentation of material in the maps in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever concerning the legal status of any region, country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, and is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers or boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. 6 03 06 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS ENERGY SYSTEMS INTEGRATION AND ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 71 157 Bioenergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Advances in the Integration of Variable Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Geothermal Power and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Ocean Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Enabling Technologies for Systems Integration . . . . . . . . . . . 159 07 Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 04 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 169 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Electricity Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLES FOR ENERGY ACCESS Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 133 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Overview of Energy Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Technologies and Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Business Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Policy Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Investment and Financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 International Initiatives and Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 05 08 FEATURE: RENEWABLE ENERGY IN CITIES 179 Drivers for Renewables in Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Opportunities for Urban Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 City Ambition and Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 City Leadership in the Global Energy Transition . . . . . . . . . . . 185 INVESTMENT FLOWS 147 Investment by Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Reference Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Investment by Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Energy Units and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Investment by Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Data Collection and Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Renewable Energy Investment in Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Methodological Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Early Investment Trends in 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Endnotes: see full version online at 7 RENEWABLES 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS GSR 2019 SIDEBARS Sidebar 1. Jobs in Renewable Energy, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Sidebar 2. Policies Potentially Enabling Renewable Energy Penetration in Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Sidebar 3. Floating Solar PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Sidebar 4. Renewable Electricity Generation Costs, 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 TABLES Table 1. Estimated Direct and Indirect Jobs in Renewable Energy, by Country/Region and Technology, 2017-2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Table 2. Renewable Energy Targets and Policies, 2018. . . . 66 Table 3. Renewable Electricity Generating Technologies, Costs and Capacity Factors, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Table 4. Approximate Impacts of and Responses to Rising Shares of Variable Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . . . 167 REFERENCE TABLES Table R1. Global Renewable Energy Capacity and Biofuel Production, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Table R14. Biofuels Global Production, Top 15 Countries and EU-28, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Table R2. Renewable Power Capacity, World and Top Regions/Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Table R15. Geothermal Power Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . 217 Table R3. Renewable Energy Targets for Share of Primary or Final Energy, 2018, and Progress, End-2016. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Table R16. Hydropower Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Table R4. Renewable Heating and Cooling Targets, 2018, and Progress, End-2017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Table R5. Renewable Transport Targets, 2018, and Progress, End-2017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Table R18. Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) Global Capacity and Additions, 2018 . . . . . . . 220 Table R6. Renewable Power Targets for Share of Electricity Generation, 2018, and Progress, End-2017. . . 194 Table R19. Solar Water Heating Collectors Total Capacity End-2017 and Newly Installed Capacity 2018, Top 20 Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Table R7. Renewable Power Targets for TechnologySpecific Share of Electricity Generation, 2018. . 197 Table R20. Wind Power Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Table R8. Renewable Power Targets for Specific Amount of Installed Capacity or Generation, 2018. . . . 198 Table R21. Electricity Access by Region and Country, 2017 and Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Table R9. Renewable Heating and Cooling Policies, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Table R22. Population Without Access to Clean Cooking, 2017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Table R10. Renewable Transport Mandates at the National/State/Provincial Levels, 2018 . . . . . . 205 Table R23. Programmes Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Table R11. Feed-in Electricity Policies, Cumulative Number of Countries/States/Provinces and 2018 Revisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Table R24. International Networks Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Table R12. Renewable Power Tenders Held at the National/State/Provincial Levels, 2018. . . . . . . 209 Table R13. Renewable Energy Targets, Selected City and Local Examples, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 8 Table R17. Solar PV Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Table R25. Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment, 2008-2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 FIGURES Figure 1. Estimated Renewable Share of Total Final Energy Consumption, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Figure 2. Growth in Global Renewable Energy Compared to Total Final Energy Consumption, 2006-2016. . . . . . . 32 Figure 3. Share of Renewables in Net Annual Additions of Power Generating Capacity, 2008-2018 . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 4. Renewable Energy in Total Final Energy Consumption, by Sector, 2016. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 5. Fossil Fuel Subsidies, per Person, by Country, 2017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Figure 6. Annual Additions of Renewable Power Capacity, by Technology and Total, 2012-2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Figure 7. Global Power Generating Capacity, by Source, 2008-2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 8. Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End-2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 9. Renewable Power Capacities in World, EU-28 and Top 6 Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Figure 10. Share of Electricity Generation from Variable Renewable Energy, Top 10 Countries, 2018. . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 11. Jobs in Renewable Energy, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 12. Number of Countries with Renewable Energy Regulatory Policies and Carbon Pricing Policies, 2004-2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Figure 13. National Sector-Specific Targets for Share of Renewable Energy by a Specific Year, by Sector, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Figure 14. Countries with Mandatory Building Energy Codes, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Figure 15. National and Sub-National Renewable Transport Mandates, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Figure 16. Targets for Renewable Power and/or Electric Vehicles, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Figure 17. Carbon Pricing Policies, 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Figure 18. Estimated Shares of Bioenergy in Total Final Energy Consumption, Overall and by End-Use Sector, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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