ANTH5exam2 - Anthropology Introduction to...

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Anthropology: Introduction to Australopithecines (9/27) Hominid (hominin) – including great apes, ancient ancestors, and homo species Orrorin tugenensis: precedes australopithecines found in Tugen hills in Kenya dates back 6 million years at least 12 fossils from the different sites, represent 5 different individuals remains are teeth, post cranium remains believed bipedal - walked upright Sahelanthropus tchadensis: found in Chad, west of East Africa dates between 6 and 7 million years ago Ardipithecus ramidus: found in Ethiopia thought to be the oldest hominid, some believe ancestor of australopithecines some say just a dead end – dies out dates from around 4.5-5.5 million years ago Australopithecines: Have fossil evidence that helps us reconstruct ancient hominid behavior and helps us better understand/ hypothesize the relationship between these species know bipedal and had prolonged infancies not apes, but not humans and not something in-between exist for extraordinary period of time – probably existed for about 4 million years Raymond Dart discovered first australopithecine fossil, correctly identified and classified, in 1924 in South Africa named Taung child because found in quarry named Taung gave species name Africanus – ape of Africa, but knew wasn’t an ape or human but believed was ancestor to humans other scientists would not accept that our ancestors came from ape-like, African species believed there was a missing link, missing creature that if they found would be just like them and would explain where we came from prejudice and ideology affecting the scientific evidence Piltdown Skull – called dawn man, the first English and was explained to be the missing link and the ancestor of the human originally believed without doubt to be our ancestor, now many disagree Combination of features and traits that differentiate australopithecines:
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common feature from neck up very ape-like but from head down have many features that point toward the evolution of homo
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