ANTH6exam2 - Anthropology Evolution(9/25 Evolution decent...

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Anthropology: Evolution (9/25) Evolution – decent with modification Decent – inheritable, genetic variation passed on through the succeeding generations Occurs in primarily two ways: operating at micro level and a macro level o Micro level – evolution/change is small, operating at the genetic level of the individual and generations o Macro level – describes changes in populations over a long period of time Alleles: alternative form of the gene that occurs at a given location; building blocks/ blue- prints of evolution, passed on to each other through the act of reproduction across generations Characteristics/Traits – affected by natural selection Natural selection – rate at which a particular trait survives each generation within a species; individual with traits and variations are suitable for their habitations will survive and those with traits unsuitable for their habitat will not survive Natural selection is not random, acts in a way that selects traits that will facilitate reproduction and survival Mutations – more random, important contribution of evolution at micro level; kind of like mistakes, can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful; random chances in the sequences or structure of DNA; mutation alone does not cause evolution because whatever change occurs in one individual has to be passed on and selected for or against Has to be passed on in order to be evolution Because mutation is random, trait must be successfully passed on several times in order to have affect; if mutation not passed on, then not important to evolution as defined Important mutations occur in reproductive cells like eggs and sperm Gene Flow – genes move, alleles move, through the bodies from one population or another through migration and interbreeding; movement brings new genetic material into a generation and provides opportunity for variation
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